WAEC Fishery Alternative B questions 2020

WAEC Fishery Alternative B questions 2020


A – Fish-meal
B – Tilapia
C – Wheelbarrow
1. (a) Identify specimens A, B and C
(b) State three uses of specimen A.
(c) Describe the process of making specimen A.
(d) Name four other by-products of fish apart from A.

2. (a) State nine benefits of raising specimen B.
(b) Describe three management systems used in raising specimen B

3. Diagrams A and B are illustrations of equipment used in fishing. Study them carefully and answer the questions that follow.

(a) (i) Identify the fishing gear illustrated as A and B below.
(ii) Describe how the fishing gear is used to catch fish.
(iii) Mention two materials that could be used to construct the gear.
(iv) Classify the gear as an active or passive gear.
(b) (i) A farmer feeds fish at 8:30a.m.and again at 4:30p.m.daily.
Explain what would happen if on a particular day the second feeding is done at 12:00 noon instead of 4:30p.m.
(ii) State the precautions that should be taken in order to prevent wastage of feed when feeding fish in a pond?
(c) Describe briefly how each of the following materials is added to a fish pond:
(i) Pure poultry droppings;
(ii) Poultry droppings mixed with wood shavings.

(1) the importance of fisheries in the socio-economic development of West Africa;
(2) skills in fish farming;
(3) basic entrepreneurial skills in fisheries related vocations;
(4) the effects of water pollution on fishery resources;
(5) fish preservation and processing techniques.


Schools offering Fisheries must have at least a small glass/plastic tank/aquarium and a fish pond/concrete tank.
(2) The study should be supplemented by visits to well established fish farms, fisheries research institutions, fishing companies and other institutions related to fisheries.
(3) It is recommended that candidates keep practical notebooks which should contain records of activities based on laboratory and individual observations carried out in glass tanks/aquaria and fish farms, field trips and also records of specimens collected.
Schools should prepare an album of fishery organisms, fishing gear and craft and different fish rearing facilities and equipment for teaching purposes.

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3 all which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.
PAPER 1: Will consist of forty multiple choice objective questions all of which should be answered within 40 minutes for 40 marks.
PAPER 2: Will consistof six essay questions. Candidates will be required to answer four questions within 2 hours for 80 marks.
PAPER 3: Will be a practical paper for school candidates and test of practical work paper for private candidates.
Each version of the paper will consist of four questions all of which should be answered within 1½ hours for 60 marks.

CONTENTS NOTES A. BASIC CONCEPTS IN FISHERIES 1. Introduction to Fisheries (a) Meaning of fisheries. Explanation of the terms fishery and fisheries. Fisheries refer to all processes involved in fish production, processing, marketing and distribution. Fishery is one aspect of fish production. (b) Sub-divisions of fisheries. Knowledge of the following is required (i) Capture fisheries (fishing): – subsistence fisheries; – artisanal fisheries; – industrial fisheries.


(ii) Culture fisheries (aquaculture). 2. Importance of fisheries. Importance of fisheries e.g. food, employment, income generation, social- 3 cultural activities, aesthetics, medicinal etc. B. PROCESSES OF FISH PRODUCTION 1. Capture fisheries Various methods of capture fisheries such as (a) Different methods involved in hook and line, cast netting, set netting, capture fisheries. trap/trapping, trawling, harpooning should be assessed. Assessment should include hooks, cages, (b) Materials required for capture knives/cutlasses, traps/basins, spears, cast nets, gill nets, seine nets, drag nets.

fisheries and their uses. Knowledge of the uses of the materials is required. 2. Culture fisheries. (a) Identification of common qualities of Students should have the knowledge of the qualities of culturable fish species such as culturable fish species. hardiness, acceptability of artificial fish feeds, tolerance to poor water quality, ability to reproduce in captivity. (b) Identification of common culturable Students should be able to identify common fishery organisms. culturable fishery organisms such as Clarias spp, Tilapia, Heterobranchus, shrimp, sea weeds. (c) Culture facilities. Assessment should include description of culture facilities such as ponds, tanks, race

C. TYPES OF FISH CULTURE ways, cages, pens.

FACILITIES AND CULTURE SYSTEMS 1. Fish ponds. Knowledge of different types of fish ponds: (a) Types of fish ponds. earthen ponds, concrete tanks, plastic tanks, fibre glass tanks etc is required. Assessment should be limited to the (b) Components of fish ponds. components of fish ponds: inlets, outlets, dykes/embankments/walls, monks and 4 spillways. Explanation of monoculture, poly culture 2. Systems of aquaculture. and integrated fish farming is required. (a) Types of aquaculture. Assessment should include the extensive, intensive and semi intensive systems of aquaculture management. (b) Management systems in aquaculture. 3. Water quality control and monitoring. Conditions of water that promote good

(a) Definition of water quality. health of fishery organisms for survival should be assessed . Assessment should cover the various water (b) Water quality parameters. quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity. (c) Methods of monitoring water quality. Knowledge of the methods used in monitoring water quality: DO meter, wrinkler method, pH meter, litmus test etc is required. (d) Water pollution. Knowledge of water pollution should be assessed under the following headings: – causes (poisons, sewage, debris, household refuse); – prevention and control. (e) Optimum water parameter ranges Knowledge of optimum water parameter ranges is required: -DO(5.0 – 8.0 mg/l); – pH(6.5 – 8.0); – turbidity (secchi disc measurement

D. FISH FEEDS AND FEEDING less than 30 cm). 1. Fish feed/food materials. (a) Identification of different fish feed/food Knowledge of natural fish food 5 (phytoplankton and zooplankton) and materials artificial fish feed should be covered. A clear distinction between food and feed should be made. (b) Nutritive value of fish feed ingredients Assessment should cover energy yielding ingredients (corn, wheat bran, garri, rice bran etc.) and protein yielding ingredients (soya bean, fish meal, groundnut cake etc.). Details of ration formulation and biochemical details

2. Fish feeding. are not required. (a) Feeding regime for fish. Knowledge should cover explanation of feeding regime such as 3% – 5 % of fish body weight based on age/size is required. (b) Ideal feeding periods for fish. Knowledge of ideal feeding periods based on age/size is required. (c) Methods of feeding. Assessment should cover feeding methods such as broadcasting, spot/point feeding,


E. FISH POND PREPARATION AND automated feeding. MANAGEMENT Assessment would cover site selection; 1. Fish pond construction construction of earthen ponds: land measurement/mapping, staking, excavation, building of dykes etc; construction of concrete ponds: land measurement/mapping, staking, stripping of the top soil, concrete base or casting, building with correct mixtures of sand, gravel and cement etc. 2. Pond preparation Knowledge of tools such as digger, head pan, cutlass, wheelbarrow, spade, hand (a) Tools required for pond preparation. trowel is required.

Knowledge of maintenance activities of old and new ponds should include: – flushing of water; (b) Preparation of ponds for stocking. – repair of leakages/cracks; – liming and fertilization – drying and cleaning etc. Assessment should cover monitoring water 3. Pond management. quality, daily checking of leakages/seepage, methods of feeding and stocking, stocking (a) Meaning of pond management. rate and time etc. 6 (b) Pond management practices. Knowledge of the various fishing gear is

F. FISH HARVESTING AND POST required. Knowledge of the materials used for

HARVESTING PROCESSES construction and mending of fishing gear is 1. Materials and methods for harvesting fish. required. Details of construction and mending are required. (a) Fishing gear Assessment should cover the various methods of harvesting fish (b) Construction and mending of fishing Knowledge of the various types of fishing crafts is required. gear. (c) Methods of fish harvesting. (d) Fishing crafts. 2. Post-harvest handling of fish Assessment should cover the different (a) ) Materials and methods methods of fish processing and preservation.

A clear distinction between fish processing for processing fish. and fish preservation should be made. (b) Methods of fish preservation. (c) ) Packaging materials for fish Knowledge of the qualities of good breeders (d) Marketing channels for fish. should include hardiness, ability to breed in captivity, large size, without defects etc.

G. FISH SEED PRODUCTION Assessment should cover ideal period of transporting fish; duration in confinement 1. Brood stock selection and handling. and careful handling of brood stock. (a) Differences between male and female Assessment should cover: the meaning of sexually matured fishes. artificial breeding as ‘manipulating the (b) Qualities of good breeders. sexually matured fish to spawn or reproduce in captivity’; importance of artificial breeding such as to: – obtain high quality hybrids; (c) ) Ways of handling brood stock . – obtain large quantity of fish seed; – make fingerlings readily available. Brood stock selection, conditioning, 2. Artificial breeding inducement, stripping, fertilization and incubation of fertilized eggs should be 7 assessed. (a) ) Meaning and importance of artificial breeding. (b) Steps involved in artificial breeding of fishes.

(c) Equipment and materials used in the Assessment should cover knowledge of equipment and materials such as basins, artificial breeding of fish happa net, hatching troughs, syringes, aquaria tanks, microscope. 3. Managing and nursing fish seed Assessment should include maintaining optimum water condition (aeration), feeding with natural food organisms (plankton), introduction of artificial feed based on size, separation of dead/unfertilized eggs from hatchlings, transferring to production/grow- out ponds/tanks, sorting of shooters/jumpers etc.

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1. Environmental conditions in fish Measurement of environmental conditions is habitats. required: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and turbidity.

2. Tools and equipment used in fish culture. Identification, uses and maintenance of 8

3. Common culturable fish species.

4. Fish feed and materials.

5. Materials for pond preparation

1. Fishing gear.
2. Fishing craft.

Fish processing and preservation. Equipment used in fish processing and preservation. Fish products and by-products. Fish packaging materials.
fishery tools and equipment e.g. secchi disc, water pump, pelleting machine, aerators.
Identification of common culturable fish species in your country is required. Knowledge of scientific names is required.
Identification of types of fish feed and uses of fish feed materials is required.

Identification and uses of materials for pond preparation: lime , fertilizers etc is required
Identification, description and uses of fishing gear e.g. gill net, cast net, seine, traps. Identification of parts and their functions should be assessed. Maintenance of fishing gear is also required.
Identification, description, uses and maintenance of fishing craft should be assessed.
Assessment should include the identification of common processed and preserved fish; identification and uses of common processing and preservation methods.
Identification and uses of fish processing equipment e.g. knives, measuring bowls, weighing balances, hand gloves; fish preservation equipment e.g. freezer, smoking kiln.
Identification and uses of fish products and by-products e.g. fish scales, fish oil, fish skin.
Identification of fish packaging materials e.g. fish boxes, nylon, baskets, cardboard

ITEM EQUIPMENT QUANTITY NO. REQUIRED 1 DO(Dissolved Oxygen) meter 2 2. pH meter 2 3. Conductivity meter 2 4. Thermometer 50 5. Water Test Kits 2 6. Microscopes 4 7. Magnifying Glass 30 8. Aquaria Tanks 5 9. Hatching Troughs 5 10. Nursery Tanks/Ponds 3 11. Demonstration Ponds 1 or more 12. Scoop Nets 10 13. Aerators and Accessories 10 14. Plastic Sieves 10 15. Compounded Feeds Many bags 16. Grinding Machines 2 17.

Charts and Pictures Assorted 18. Video Clips in Fisheries Assorted 19. Pelleting Machine 1 20. Dissection Kits 2 21. Water Pumps 2 22. Secchi Disc 2 23 Model Gillnet 1 24 Model Cast net 1 25 Model Siene net 1 26 Model traps Assorted 27 Model hooks and line 2 28 Model trawl net 1 29 Netting materials Assorted 30 Hooks packets 20(nos 1-20) 31 Nylon ropes 1 32 Mounting twine 1 33 Canoe 1 34 Paddles 2 35 Gutting knives 10 36 Measuring boards 5 37 Weighing balances 2 38 Hand gloves 30 39 Freezers 2 40 Ovens 2 41 Kilns 2 1
42 Fish drying racks 2 43 Fish boxes 5 44 Salting trays/basins 5 45 Sun-drying mats 5 46 Cardboards box 5 47 Nylon 10(bundles) 48 Baskets 10

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