No1a)Distinguish between communal and individual land ownership system

-A non-member of the community has no access to communal land while a non-member of the community can acquire land in individual land ownership.
-Land belongs to the entire community in the communal system whereas it belongs to the individual in the individual ownership.

-Village head/land committee distributes land to individuals in the community while the individual acquires his land by purchase or inheritance in individual ownership.

-Use to which land is put to in the communal system is influenced/controlled by the village head while in the individual system, the individual determines the usage of land.

-Sale of land is rarely done in communal land tenure system since no individual has absolute ownership but it is common in individual land ownership system.
-Communal land cannot be used as collateral while land held by the individual can be used as collateral.

-Enterprising farmers can expand their holdings under individual ownership but cannot do so in communal system.
-Communal land is not transferable whereas individual land is transferable

-permanent crops are not usually planted on communal land while permanent crops can be planted on individual land.

(i)Lacks incentive for land development
(ii)Low yields due to overstocking
(iii)Poor stock breeding programmes
(iv)Difficult to control pests, parasites and diseases
(v)Lowers the carrying capacity of the land


(i) There is a restriction of land users’ activities.

(ii) Land is excessively fragmented.

(iii) Non-indigenes are not allowed access to (and either for agricultural or any other purpose

. (iv) Non-indigenes cannot grow permanent crops or make permanent improvement on land.

(a)(i) Advantages of manual labour: (a) it is cheap (b) maximum contact enables closer and better observation (c) allows for selective operation in any cropping system (d) lower energy expended than mechanical energy (e) intelligence enables man to control other sources of farm power (f) can be used for jobs that require precision (g) easily available. (ii) Disadvantages of manual labour: (a) can be difficult to manage (b) prone to injuries (c) limited capacity/low output/area covered is limited (d) illness may hamper work (e) efficiency decreases with age (f) hard and tiring (g) it is time consuming (h) less efficient, compared with machine.

(b) Qualities of good draught animals: (i) good body size/deep barrel (ii) strong hind limbs and a sloping rump (iii) strong hooves, good stride and stance (gait) (iv) preferably males/castrates (v) docile animals (vi) should be healthy (vii) energetic/strong/powerful

(c) Precautions: (i) treat animals fairly to prevent being angered (ii) apply muzzle (iii) do not over work them (iv) best to work early in the morning or evening (v) ensure animals are healthy; kept in healthy environment (vi) feed and provide adequate water.

(d)(i) Harnessing power in sun: (a) solar energy trapped by photo-voltaic cell (b) solar collectors/panels (c) can be converted to electrical energy (d) energy is stored in batteries (e) energy may be used directly. (ii) Harnessing power in Biogas: Animal dung is mixed with water. It is then stored in airtight device/digester/dome. Anaerobic decomposition by microbes occurs. A colourless and odourless gas (methane) produced. The gas is then stored for use in cooking

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