Waec government Answers 2023

Waec government Answers 2023

Here is the Waec government Answers 2023


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(i) Legislative Function: The government is responsible for making laws and regulations that govern the behavior of individuals and institutions within society. This includes the enactment of new laws, amending existing laws, and creating frameworks for legal and regulatory systems.

(ii) Executive Function: The government is responsible for implementing and enforcing laws and policies. It includes the execution of administrative tasks, management of public services, and the enforcement of regulations through various government agencies and departments.

(iii) Judicial Function: The government ensures access to justice and maintains a fair and impartial judicial system. It includes interpreting laws, resolving disputes, and administering justice through courts and other legal mechanisms.

(iv) Defense and Security Function: The government is responsible for protecting the nation’s borders, maintaining internal security, and defending against external threats. This includes maintaining armed forces, intelligence agencies, and law enforcement bodies.

(v) Economic Function: The government plays a crucial role in managing the economy. It involves creating and implementing economic policies, regulating financial institutions, promoting economic growth, managing public finances, and providing public goods and services.

(vi) Social Welfare Function: The government works to improve the welfare and well-being of its citizens. It includes providing social safety nets, healthcare services, education, housing, and other social programs to ensure basic standards of living and address social inequalities.

(vii) Infrastructure Development: The government is responsible for developing and maintaining infrastructure such as roads, bridges, transportation networks, utilities, and public facilities. It ensures the provision of essential services and supports economic development.

(viii) Diplomatic Function: The government represents the country in international affairs and maintains diplomatic relations with other nations. It negotiates treaties, participates in international organizations, and promotes the country’s interests and values globally.

(ix) Public Communication and Information: The government disseminates information to the public, communicates policies and initiatives, and facilitates public engagement and participation in decision-making processes.

(x) Environmental and Natural Resource Management: The government is responsible for managing and conserving natural resources, protecting the environment, and addressing issues such as pollution, climate change, and sustainable development.

1. Better service delivery: A local government system ensures better service delivery to the citizens as it is closer to the ground and understands the challenges of the people living in the locality.

2. Effective decision-making: A local government system ensures effective decision-making as it understands the local issues and can quickly act on them. This helps in timely addressing challenges and quickly implementing solutions.

3. Increased citizen participation: A local government system encourages citizen participation and involvement in the decision-making process. This results in better democracy and increased citizen engagement in governance.

4. Promotes Economic Development: A local government system plays a crucial role in economic development and growth of the region. It works closely with the local businesses and industries to create a conducive environment for growth and development.

5. Efficient use of resources: A local government system ensures the efficient use of resources as it is responsible for the proper management of the finances and resources allocated to it. This helps in avoiding wastage and ensures that the funds are used in the best interest of the citizens.

(i) Backlog of Cases: An overwhelming number of pending cases can significantly slow down the justice system. Insufficient judicial resources, including judges, court staff, and infrastructure, can lead to delays in hearings, trial proceedings, and the resolution of cases, undermining the timely delivery of justice.

(ii) Inadequate Funding: Insufficient budgetary allocations to the judiciary can impact the quality and efficiency of the justice delivery system. Inadequate funding can limit the recruitment and training of judges, infrastructure development, and the implementation of technological advancements that could streamline processes.

(iii) Corruption and Lack of Transparency: Corruption within the justice system can erode public trust and impede the effective operation of the system. Judicial corruption, including bribery, nepotism, and favoritism, can undermine the impartiality and integrity of the judiciary. Similarly, a lack of transparency in court proceedings and decision-making processes can contribute to a perception of unfairness.

(iv) Legal Complexity: Complex and lengthy legal procedures, convoluted laws, and unclear regulations can create confusion and hinder the smooth operation of the justice system. This complexity can lead to delays, increase legal costs, and pose barriers for individuals seeking access to justice, particularly for those without legal expertise or resources.

(v) Inadequate Legal Aid: Limited access to legal aid services can impede the effective functioning of the justice system, especially for marginalized and disadvantaged individuals who cannot afford legal representation. Without proper legal assistance, people may struggle to navigate the legal process, resulting in unequal access to justice.

(vi) Inefficiencies and Bottlenecks: Inefficient case management systems, outdated technologies, and administrative bottlenecks can hamper the operation of the justice system. Insufficient coordination among different actors within the system, including judges, prosecutors, defense attorneys, and support staff, can lead to inefficiencies, delays, and a lack of synchronization in the handling of cases.

(vii) Overreliance on Adversarial System: Some democratic states rely heavily on an adversarial system, where legal proceedings are adversarial in nature, with opposing parties competing to prove their case. While this system has its merits, it can also result in lengthy and costly litigation, delays, and an emphasis on winning rather than seeking truth or promoting reconciliation.

(viii) Social and Cultural Factors: Societal factors, such as biases, discrimination, and prejudice, can seep into the justice system and impede its effectiveness. These factors can affect decision-making, particularly in cases involving vulnerable groups, leading to unequal treatment and injustice.

(i)The media present all the programme and project of government go the people in the country

(ii)The mass media serve as an avenue through which political leaders champaign and present their manifestoes to the people.

(iii)The kind of party system in a country is made known to the citizens through the mass media

(iv)Every political jingle put forward by the political party and the political is revealed to the people through the mass media

(v)To generate opinion poll on public issues through mass media

Political leadership refers to the role and responsibilities of individuals who hold positions of authority and influence within the realm of politics. It encompasses the ability to lead, guide, and make decisions that shape the political landscape and governance of a country, region, or community.


Political leadership refers to the process and practice of guiding and influencing political processes and activities towards achieving specific goals within the realm of politics. It involves individuals who hold positions of authority or influence within political systems and who use their power to shape policies, make decisions, and mobilize support.



(i)Integrity: Good political leaders are honest, ethical, and demonstrate a strong sense of integrity. They act in the best interest of the public and uphold high moral and ethical standards.

(ii)Vision and Strategic Thinking: Effective political leaders have a clear vision for the future and are capable of strategic thinking. They can envision and articulate a compelling long-term direction for their country or community.

(iii)Strong Communication Skills: Good political leaders are excellent communicators. They can effectively convey their ideas, inspire others, and build consensus. They actively listen to diverse perspectives and engage in constructive dialogue.

(iv)Emotional Intelligence: Political leaders with emotional intelligence are aware of their own emotions and can manage them effectively. They also demonstrate empathy and understanding towards the needs and concerns of the people they serve.

(v)Leadership and Decision-Making: Good political leaders possess strong leadership skills. They have the ability to make informed and timely decisions, even in challenging or complex situations.

(vi)Problem-Solving and Innovation: Effective political leaders are adept at problem-solving. They can identify key issues and challenges, develop creative solutions, and take decisive action.

(vii)Resilience and Perseverance: Good political leaders exhibit resilience and perseverance in the face of adversity. They remain committed to their vision and goals, even when confronted with obstacles or setbacks.
(i) Formation of Political Values and Beliefs: Political socialization helps individuals develop their political values and beliefs, which are essential for making informed political choices. Through family, education, media, and peer groups, individuals acquire knowledge about political systems, ideologies, and policies, enabling them to form opinions and make decisions in a democratic society.

(ii) Promotion of Political Awareness: Political socialization raises awareness about political issues, events, and processes. It exposes individuals to various sources of information, such as news, debates, and discussions, which helps them stay informed about political developments. This awareness enables citizens to actively engage in political debates, analyze different perspectives, and make informed decisions during elections and other democratic processes.

(iii) Encouragement of Active Citizenship: Political socialization encourages individuals to become active participants in the democratic process. By instilling a sense of civic duty, political socialization motivates citizens to vote, join political parties or interest groups, engage in public protests, and participate in community-based initiatives. Active citizenship is vital for a functioning democracy as it ensures that diverse voices and interests are represented and considered in decision-making processes.

(iv) Fostering Political Tolerance and Pluralism: Political socialization contributes to the development of political tolerance and respect for diverse viewpoints. Through exposure to different ideologies, cultures, and perspectives, individuals learn to appreciate and accept political diversity. This tolerance fosters open dialogue, compromise, and cooperation among citizens with differing opinions, which are fundamental for the functioning of a democratic society.

(v) Generation of Political Legitimacy: Political socialization helps establish political legitimacy by cultivating citizens’ trust and confidence in democratic institutions and processes. When individuals are socialized to understand the principles and values underlying democracy, they are more likely to accept and respect the outcomes of elections, abide by the rule of law, and actively engage in civic and political activities. This legitimacy strengthens the democratic system, enhances political stability, and facilitates effective governance.

(vi) Development of Political Identity: Political socialization helps individuals develop their political identity, which is crucial for their engagement in democratic processes. Through exposure to various socializing agents such as family, education, and media, individuals acquire a sense of belonging to a particular political ideology, party, or movement.

(vii) Transmission of Democratic Values: Political socialization plays a vital role in transmitting democratic values to individuals from an early age. Family, educational institutions, and social networks help instill values such as freedom, equality, fairness, and justice, which form the foundation of democratic principles.


(i) Formation of Political Identity: Political socialization helps individuals develop their political identity, which includes their political beliefs, values, and affiliations. Through socialization agents such as family, schools, peers, and media, individuals acquire an understanding of the political system, different ideologies, and the role of citizens in the democratic process. This process contributes to the formation of a politically engaged and informed citizenry.

(ii) Participation and Civic Engagement: Political socialization encourages individuals to actively participate in the democratic process. By instilling a sense of civic duty, political socialization motivates citizens to vote, engage in political discussions, join political organizations or advocacy groups, and express their opinions through various forms of political participation. This active engagement strengthens democratic practices and ensures a more inclusive and representative political system.

(iii) Understanding of Democratic Values and Principles: Political socialization helps individuals develop an understanding of democratic values and principles such as freedom of speech, equality, human rights, and the rule of law. By internalizing these values, individuals become more aware of their rights and responsibilities as citizens and are more likely to support and defend democratic institutions and processes.

(iv) Political Knowledge and Awareness: Political socialization contributes to the acquisition of political knowledge and awareness. It helps individuals understand the structure and functions of government, the political process, and the policies and issues that shape their society. Well-informed citizens are better equipped to make informed decisions, hold elected officials accountable, and participate effectively in democratic processes such as elections, public debates, and policy discussions.

(v) Tolerance and Respect for Diversity: Political socialization can foster tolerance and respect for diverse opinions and perspectives. Exposure to different political ideologies, cultural backgrounds, and social experiences helps individuals develop empathy, open-mindedness, and an appreciation for the diversity of views within a democratic society. This promotes constructive dialogue, compromise, and the ability to work towards common goals despite ideological differences.

(vi) Critically Evaluating Political Messages: Political socialization enables individuals to critically evaluate political messages and media content. By understanding the influences and biases present in political communication, individuals can discern between reliable information and propaganda. This critical thinking capacity is essential for a well-functioning democracy, as it helps citizens make informed choices and guards against manipulation and misinformation.


(i)Widespread Corruption: Rampant corruption within the government that undermines democratic principles, weakens state institutions, and hampers public welfare.

(ii) Electoral Fraud and Manipulation: Systemic manipulation of electoral processes that undermine the fairness and legitimacy of elections, thereby eroding democratic principles.

(iii) Political Instability and Violence: Prolonged political instability, frequent violent conflicts, or civil unrest that jeopardizes public order and hinders effective governance.

(iv) Failure to Uphold the Constitution: Continuous violations of constitutional provisions by the government, such as undermining the separation of powers, disregarding civil liberties, or undermining the rule of law.

(v) Authoritarianism and Dictatorial Tendencies: The gradual erosion of democratic institutions, increasing concentration of power in the hands of a single leader or group, and the suppression of political opposition.

(vi) Human Rights Abuses: Gross violations of human rights, including state-sponsored violence, torture, extrajudicial killings, or systematic discrimination against specific groups.

(vii) Economic Crisis and Mismanagement: Severe economic crises marked by widespread poverty, hyperinflation, soaring unemployment, and economic mismanagement that threatens the welfare of the population.

(viii) Failure to Address Social Inequality: Persistent and widening socioeconomic disparities, inadequate provision of public services, and neglect of marginalized communities, leading to deep social divisions.

(ix) Breakdown of Law and Order: Pervasive crime rates, inability to maintain public safety, and the breakdown of law enforcement, creating an environment of lawlessness.

(x) External Threats and National Security: Existential threats to the nation’s security, such as foreign invasion, insurgency, or terrorism, that the civilian government is perceived as unable or unwilling to address effectively.

(i)Imposition of Colonial Rule: European powers, such as Britain, France, and Germany, imposed direct colonial rule over various West African territories during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This resulted in the loss of sovereignty and political independence for the indigenous states and societies.

(ii)Administrative Reorganization: Colonial powers reorganized the political and administrative structures of West African territories to suit their interests. They established centralized bureaucratic systems, replacing or co-opting existing traditional systems of governance.

(iii)Creation of Artificial Boundaries: Colonial powers drew arbitrary boundaries without considering the ethnic, cultural, or historical realities of the region. This resulted in the division of ethnic groups and communities across multiple colonies, leading to fragmented and diverse political landscapes.

(iv)Emergence of Nationalist Movements: The experience of colonial rule and the denial of political rights and self-determination fueled the growth of nationalist movements. These movements sought to challenge colonial domination and fought for independence and self-governance.

(v)Political Education and Awareness: The colonial period witnessed the emergence of educated elites who received Western-style education and were exposed to political ideas such as nationalism, self-determination, and democracy.

(vi)Transition to Statehood: The political impacts of colonial administration laid the groundwork for the eventual transition to statehood. Through nationalist struggles and diplomatic negotiations, West African territories gained independence from colonial rule.

(vi)Legacy of Colonial Borders and Divisions: The artificial borders established by colonial powers have had lasting impacts on the political dynamics in West Africa. Post-colonial states have had to grapple with issues of ethnic diversity, boundary disputes, and the legacy of colonial rule, which continue to shape political realities in the region.

(i) Responsive Governance: Local government systems bring governance closer to the people. They provide a platform for addressing local needs, concerns, and aspirations more effectively. Efficient local governments can respond promptly to the specific needs and preferences of their communities, ensuring that public services and policies are tailored to local contexts.

(ii) Local Decision-Making: Local government systems empower communities to make decisions that directly affect their lives. They allow for greater citizen participation and engagement in decision-making processes. Local governments can involve citizens in shaping local policies, planning initiatives, and allocating resources, fostering a sense of ownership and democracy at the grassroots level.

(iii) Efficient Service Delivery: Local governments are responsible for providing essential public services such as water supply, sanitation, waste management, transportation, and local infrastructure. An efficient local government system ensures that these services are delivered effectively and efficiently, meeting the specific needs of the local population. Local governments are often better positioned to understand and respond to the unique challenges and demands of their communities.

(iv) Local Economic Development: Local governments play a crucial role in promoting economic development at the local level. They can implement policies and initiatives to attract investments, support small businesses, create employment opportunities, and enhance the overall economic vitality of their regions. An efficient local government system can facilitate a conducive environment for local economic growth and prosperity.

(v) Fiscal Management and Resource Allocation: Local governments are responsible for managing and allocating resources within their jurisdictions. They collect local taxes, fees, and grants, and make decisions about resource allocation based on local priorities. Efficient local government systems ensure transparent and accountable fiscal management, optimizing the use of resources to benefit the local community.

(vi) Social Cohesion and Community Building: Local governments play a crucial role in fostering social cohesion and community building. They can promote social integration, cultural diversity, and social welfare initiatives at the local level. Efficient local government systems can facilitate community participation, cooperation, and collaboration, leading to stronger social bonds and a sense of belonging among residents.

(vii) Accountability and Transparency: Local government systems provide an important mechanism for ensuring accountability and transparency in governance. Efficient local governments are more likely to adhere to principles of transparency, accountability, and good governance. They can establish mechanisms for public scrutiny, citizen feedback, and oversight, which helps build trust between the government and its constituents.

(viii) Subsidiarity and Decentralization: A well-functioning local government system aligns with the principles of subsidiarity and decentralization. It allows for the decentralization of power and decision-making, distributing authority and responsibilities to lower levels of government. This not only enhances democratic governance but also promotes efficient and effective decision-making by bringing decision-making closer to the affected communities.

(i) Insufficient Resources: Inadequate allocation of resources, including funding, infrastructure, and personnel, can severely impede the effective functioning of the justice system. Lack of resources can result in overcrowded courts, understaffed judicial bodies, and limited access to legal aid, undermining the system’s ability to deliver timely justice.

(ii) Corruption and Bribery: The presence of corruption and bribery within the justice system can erode public trust and confidence. When judges, lawyers, or court personnel are susceptible to external influences or engage in corrupt practices, it undermines the fairness and impartiality of the justice delivery system.

(iii) Lack of Access to Legal Services: Unequal access to legal services, particularly for marginalized and economically disadvantaged individuals, poses a significant challenge. Limited availability of legal aid, high legal costs, and inadequate representation can result in unequal access to justice, favoring those with greater resources.

(iv) Complexity and Lengthy Procedures: Complex and lengthy legal procedures can deter individuals from seeking justice. When legal processes are convoluted and time-consuming, it discourages people from pursuing their rights and can lead to frustration and a lack of faith in the justice system.

(v) Inadequate Judicial Training: The effectiveness of the justice delivery system relies on well-trained and competent judges and legal professionals. Insufficient training programs and professional development opportunities can hinder the system’s ability to interpret and apply laws effectively, impacting the quality of judgments and decisions.

(vi) Political Interference: Undue political influence on the justice system can compromise its independence and impartiality. When politicians interfere in judicial appointments, case proceedings, or verdicts, it undermines the integrity of the justice delivery system and erodes public trust.

(vii) Inadequate Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms: A lack of accessible and efficient alternative dispute resolution mechanisms, such as mediation and arbitration, can burden the formal justice system. When people are unable to resolve their disputes through alternative means, it increases the caseload of the courts and contributes to delays in justice delivery.

(viii) Backlog of Cases: One of the significant challenges faced by the justice delivery system is the accumulation of a large number of pending cases. This backlog can lead to significant delays in the resolution of disputes, undermining the system’s efficiency and eroding public trust.

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