Waec government answers 2021

Waec government answers 2021

Here is the waec government answers for 2021.

Waec government answers 2021

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*1) Feature that make democratic the most porpular system of government*

– Existence of the Constitution

– Popular participation in politics

– Equality before the law

– Periodic election

– Separation of power

1. Existence of the Constitution: In every democratic nation, there is usually the existence of a constitution which is either written or written. A constitution can simply be defined as the fundamental laws or rules which guides a state or society.

2. Popular participation in politics: One the most important features of democracy is popular participation in politics. From the definition of democracy explained above, it is clear that any system which does not encourages people to participate in the political decision making of the government is not democratic.

3. Equality before the law: In a true democratic state, there is equity before the law. This form of government does no encourage the idea that some class of citizens should or should not be punished for their actions. Even the legitimate leaders in a democratic state are forced to face the law during or after their service of the nation.

4. Periodic election: Since the people are the supreme in a democratic state, there is usually a fixed tenure for conducting elections. This is to make sure that the political powers of the state is not concentrated in a single hand.

5. Separation of power: Separation of power is a political concept by Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, an 18th century French social and political philosopher. It means that the political powers of a state should not be concentrated in one single hand. It should rather be separated and sheared to avoid dictatorship.

*Q2*

1. Top management:

Top management is an important part of an organization. The job of top management to take important decision related to the organization and also to listen to the complaints of the employees of the organization and provide a solution to them.

#2. Authority to make a decision is in the hand of top management only:

There are different levels of management in an organization to run the organization smoothly, but still, the power to make all important decisions about the organization lies in the hands of the top management and rest, or level of management is supposed to follow the decision taken by the top management.

#3. Information flows from the upper level to lower levels:

the organizations where the centralization process is followed, the information flows from the upper level of management to lower level of management.

The top management is responsible for taking an important decision, and the decision taken by the top management is implemented in the entire organization.

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There are flaws in this process as lower management can’t challenge the decision of top management even if they don’t like the decision.

#4. Longer time to make decisions:

The employees of an organization are completely dependent on the decision made by the top management. Sometimes, even if the lower management has effective solutions, they can’t implement them without getting approval from the upper management.

This protocol makes the process quite slow and ineffective.

#5. Centralization is suitable for a small organization:

AS centralization results in slow decision making. It is not suitable for large organizations and makes the decision process complicated.

However, in small organizations due to less number of employees and a few levels of management decision centralization process takes less time in the flow of information from the upper level to the lower level and the implementation.

#6. Inflexible in nature:

In the centralization process, as top management is responsible for taking all the decisions, sometimes they end up making an ineffective decision because they are unaware of the ground reality of the organization.

In such scenarios, lower management has a better capability in taking a decision. Therefore, a decentralized system of management helps in taking effective decisions.

(7)
(i)It provided for a Bicameral legislature made up of the Senate and House of Representatives and It made provision for citizenship in Nigeria.

(ii)It granted emergency power to the central government and it provided for a parliamentary system of government.

(iii) It made provision for the protection of fundamental human rights and freedom and it granted the federal Supreme Court the power of judicial review.

(iv)It created the Judicial Service Commission with the power to appoint judges and all residual powers were placed in the hands of the regions.

(v)It provided for the position of Governor-General who represented the Queen of England and the Prime Minister and it stated the basis for revenue allocation.

(9)

(i) Military and technical aid: Some farmers colonial territories especially the French territories, receives military and technical aid from their former colonial masters

(ii)common language: Colonialism promoted the development of common languages among the colonial territories. English was developed and spoken in British territories while French developed in French territories.

(iii)Development of political parties: One of the positive impact of colonialism in British and French West Africa was the development of political parties. Many of these political parties emerged to champion the struggle for political independence.

(iv)Common wealth: This organisation was formed to bring together all former colonies under Britain and Britain itself. They cooperate among themselves in different areas of human endeavour eg sports ,scholarship programme etc.

(v)Emergency of the press: Another positive impact of colonialism was the emergence of the press,especially the print media (Newspaper). The press developed and became the mouthpiece of the people in the struggle for political independence.

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(4)
(i)Public Opinion Serves as the Foundation of Democracy: Sovereignty of the people, which is the very basis of democracy, really means supremacy of the public opinion. In every democracy, the government and its policies are continuously based on public opinion. The government remains in power so long as it is backed by public opinion.

(ii)Public Opinion is a Device of Effective Control Over the Government: Public opinion is the most effective instrument of control over the government. The government is really responsible to public opinion.

(iii)Public Opinion Determines Election Results: In every election only that political party wins which enjoys the support of public opinion. The political party which gets the popular mandate to rule has to exercise power only in tune with public opinion. It has to go out of power when public opinion turns against it.

(iv)Public Opinion is a Major Source of Law:
The laws passed by the government are in-fact based upon public demands i.e. demands backed by public opinion. Hence, public opinion is a source of law.

(v)Public Opinion is the Real Sanction Behind Law: Not only public opinion is a source of law but also it is an important sanction behind law. Only those laws get successfully implemented and produce desired results, which are backed by public opinion.
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(1)
(i) Freedom of the press: The radio, newspaper and television should be free to write and Express issues without any hindrance.

(ii) Political parties: Where democracy is operational, there are more than one political party with different individuals competing for power.

(iii) Political liberty: it is an indispensable factor, the equal rights of all normal adults to vote and to stand as candidates for election, periodic elections and equal eligibility for political offices etc.

(iv) Value of individual personality: In democracy, the belief in the value of individual personality is restored. It implies the need to respect the other man,to listen to his arguments and to take account his point of view

(v) Free association and group: People should be able yo choose their own candidates or support political parties without being intimidated. Citizens can form parties and canvass for support for their programmes.
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SECTION B Answer Two (2) Only Which Is 6&9 or 7.

(6a)
(i)The Oba.
(ii)Oyomesi.
(iii)The Ogboni.

(6b)
(i)Control of the King
At the top of the Yoruba political structure was the king, called the Alaafin. He was vested with most of the powers of the state and this included both the political and spiritual powers. There were three assistants who were in charge of the king’s administration. They were, Ona Efa, the Empires Chief Justice, the Otun Efa, the head of the Sango shrine and the Osi Efa, the controller of the palace finances. The head of the Council of Chiefs, the Bashorun, had the power to dethrone the king if the people lost confidence in him

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(ii)Control of the Aremo
The Aremo was the first son of the king. In the event of the demise of the Alaafin, the Aremo was the one to step into his shoes. At a point in the history of the Yoruba, it was realized that the Aremo were assassinating their fathers so that they could sit on the throne. It was, therefore, decreed that whenever the king died the Aremo must commit suicide. This was the check the killing of the kings before their natural term.

(iii)Control of the Bashorun
The Bashorun was controlled by the Ogboni which was a gathering of the representatives of the various lineages. The Bashorun was appointed upon the approval of the Ogboni. The king or Alaafin could use the Ogboni to control excesses of the Oyomesi (Council of Prominent Chiefs) headed by the Bashorun

(iv)Control of the army and their Commander
The Army Commander was answerable to the Alaafin and the Bashorun. The army officers were appointed by the Alaafin but their promotions were carried out by the Oyomesi. If the army commander lost a war, he was expected to commit suicide or go into exile

(9)
(i) Military and technical aid: Some farmers colonial territories especially the French territories, receives military and technical aid from their former colonial masters

(ii)common language: Colonialism promoted the development of common languages among the colonial territories. English was developed and spoken in British territories while French developed in French territories.

(iii)Development of political parties: One of the positive impact of colonialism in British and French West Africa was the development of political parties. Many of these political parties emerged to champion the struggle for political independence.

(iv)Common wealth: This organisation was formed to bring together all former colonies under Britain and Britain itself. They cooperate among themselves in different areas of human endeavour eg sports ,scholarship programme etc.

(v)Emergency of the press: Another positive impact of colonialism was the emergence of the press,especially the print media (Newspaper). The press developed and became the mouthpiece of the people in the struggle for political independence.
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We gat you all always.

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  1. Sunday September 22, 2021
  2. Joseph September 22, 2021

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