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Citizenship education is an education that empower individuals to understand their rights and to be responsible, respectful, and participatory.

(i)Allowing Citizens To Contribute For Common Good
(ii)Being Civil Competencies
(iii)Creating Freedom Awareness Among Citizens
(iv)Knowing Of One’s Constitutional Rights
(v)Ensuring Equality Of Citizens
(vi)Understanding The Truth About Citizenship

Human rights are the basic rights and freedoms that belong to every person in the world, from birth until death.

(i)giving advice on human rights.
(ii)checking laws to make sure they uphold human rights.
(iii)suggesting new laws to protect human rights, such as the Bill of
(iv)Giving Rights for investigating situations where human rights may be abused, such as in prisons or hospitals;
promoting awareness of human rights.
(v)taking cases of human rights abuse to court.
(vi)working with other organisations to promote human rights

(i)It breeds children with good leadership/ citizenship qualities.

(ii)It nurtures children to know and perform their duties and obligations in the society.

(iii)It trains children to abhor criminal acts/reduce crime in the society.

(iv)It trains children to know their rights and how to secure them.

(v)It trains children to be patriotic/nationalistic.

(i)Quest For Power and Social Identity; The major causes of cultism is the quest for power and social identity among their colleagues in school.

(ii)Poor Parental Training; The present day parenthood suffers a bridge of communication and intimacy with their wards (children) and this has lead a lot of students to cultism because most parent fail to inculcate norm, moral, value and discipline to their wards.

(iii)Peer Pressure/ peer group Influence: Pressure from peers group can make even a decent person do some awful things at times, that is why peer pressure is another major cause of cultism.

(iv)Revenge: Some people who are victims of harassment, Assaults, rape, bullying, child abuse or painful past seek revenge through cultism because they believe the group will give them the platform to fleetly take their own pounds of the flesh.

(v)Use Of Cultists By Politicians: Politicians who use cultists as thugs during campaigns and elections are part of people who are encouraging cultism in this part of the world.

(i)Poverty : This is a situation where a person fall short of a level of economic welfare, where a person lacks the basic human want which are clothing, food and shelter .A person who is poor can easily be deceived to come over to another place with the promise of getting a good job and become a victim in the hands
of the traffickers.

(ii)Lack of employment opportunities : Due to the bad economic situation of some countries that made some people jobless, some people therefore get lured
and deceived by traffickers because they want to get out of the country and thereby using them as slaves
and prostitutes in other countries.

(iii)Profit : Because of the profits the trafficker wants to make from doing trafficking business make them to
engage themselves in such evil business all because of profit.

(iv)Low self esteem : Many people because they do not know their worth and value, they see themselves as nobody thereby making them vulnerable and they fall
into the hands of traffickers and because they have low self esteem they allow any body to direct them
to anywhere.

(v)Illiterates: Illiterates are those who are not able to read or write, illiteracy has made so many people to become a victim of trafficking, for instance, signing on a paper you do not have any knowledge about. They deceived them by telling them they will enroll them into school and teach them many things, because they want to be educated they then fall victim of trafficking.

(i)Encourage them to follow their passions. Involve scholars, professionals, and volunteers from the community to mentor them and guide them on how to plan, execute, and follow their passions the right way.

(ii)Share with them success stories of youth who worked hard and fought to achieve the successes they have now. These powerful personal stories will motivate and encourage them to do better and counter any negative messages surrounding young people.

(iii)Encourage them to start now. It’s never too early or too late to start developing good habits. Persistence and constant personal progression are the most important things when it comes to accomplishing goals combined with the guidance, mentoring, and opportunities.

(iv)Show them that their opinions matter and what they have to say is important, engage them in decision-making, and give them the responsibility and the power to better the community, to pass the torch, so to speak.

(v)Treat them with humility. Remember they are just starting to learn to integrate into society in the larger sense, so give them confidence and always be patient. They need all the guidance and help they can get.

Constitution is defined as a body of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or country is acknowledged to be governed

(i) It shall be the duty of every citizens to abide by the constitution.
(ii) Government shall direct its policy towards ensuring that there are equal and adequate educational opportunities in all levels.
(iii) All citizens must protect and prevent public properties and fight against mis-appropriation and squandening of public funds.
(iv) To live in unity and harmony
(v) To make positive and useful contributions to the advancement, progress and well being of the country.
(vi) To participate in and defend all processes and practices.

(i)By distributing fund to civil society organisations and to municipalities that run activities aimed at increasing participation.

(ii)By giving support material for compulsory political information in schools and the presence of political party representatives.

(iii)Initiating work to promote involvement in representative democracy and improve social representativeness.

(iv)Increased democratic awareness: Awareness of the fundamental principles of democracy and knowledge of the rules of democracy.

(v)Safeguarding democracy against violence-promoting extremism.

(i) Promote and maintain the highest levels of integrity, impartiality, accountability and leadership across the government sector.
(ii) Improve the capability of the government sector to provide strategic and innovative policy advice.
(iii) Implements the decision of the government and meet public expections.
(iv) Build public confidence in the government sector.
(v) Support the government in achieving the positive budget.

(i) Existence of Inefficiency and low productivity.
(ii)Delay in the execution of government policies and
(iii) Ension of public Confidence in the service.
(iv) Lack of qualified workers.
(v) Criticism.


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