# Physics JAMB SYLLABUS 2022

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Physics is to
prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the
course objectives, which are to:
(1) sustain their interest in physics;
(2) develop attitude relevant to physics that encourage accuracy, precision and objectivity;
(3) interpret physical phenomena, laws, definitions, concepts and other theories;
(4) demonstrate the ability to solve correctly physics problems using relevant theories and
concepts.

1. MEASUREMENTS AND UNITS
(a) Length area and volume:
Metre rule, Venier calipers Micrometer
Screw-guage
(b) Mass
(i) unit of mass
(ii) use of simple beam balance
(c) Time
(i) unit of time
(ii) time-measuring devices
(d) Fundamental physical quantities

(e) Derived physical quantities and their
units
(i) Combinations of fundamental
quantities and determination of their
units
(f) Dimensions
(i) definition of dimensions
(ii) simple examples
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the units of length area and
volume;
ii. use different measuring instruments;
iii. determine the lengths, surface areas and
volume of regular and irregular bodies;
iv. identify the unit of mass;
v. use simple beam balance, e.g Buchart’s
balance and chemical balance;
vi. identify the unit of time;
vii. use different time-measuring devices;
viii. relate the fundamental physical quantities
to their units;
ix. deduce the units of derived physical
quantities;
x. Determine the dimensions of physical
quantities;
xi. use the dimensions to determine the units
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(g) Limitations of experimental
measurements
(i) accuracy of measuring instruments
(ii) simple estimation of errors.
(iii) significant figures.
(iv) standard form.
2. Scalars and Vectors
(i) definition of scalar and vector
quantities
(ii) examples of scalar and vector
quantities
(iii) relative velocity
(iv) resolution of vectors into two
perpendicular directions including
graphical methods of
solution.
3. Motion
(a) Types of motion:
translational, oscillatory, rotational,
spin and
random
(b) linear motion
(i) speed, velocity and acceleration
(ii) equations of uniformly accelerated
motion
(iii) motion under gravity
(iv) distance-time graph and velocity
time graph
(v) instantaneous velocity and
acceleration.
(c) Projectiles:
(i) calculation of range, maximum
height and
time of fight
(ii) applications of projectile motion
(d) Newton’s laws of motion:
(i) inertia, mass and force
(ii) relationship between mass and
acceleration
(iii) impulse and momentum
(iv) conservation of linear momentum
(Coefficient of restitution not
of physical quantities;
xii. test the homogeneity of an equation;
xiii. determine the accuracy of measuring
instruments;
xiv. estimate simple errors;
xv. express measurements in standard form.
Candidates should be able to:
i. distinguish between scalar and vector
quantities;
ii. give examples of scalar and vector
quantities;
iii. determine the resultant of two or more
vectors;
iv. determine relative velocity;
v. resolve vectors into two perpendicular
components;
vi. use graphical methods to solve vector
problems;
Candidates should be able to :
i. identify different types of motion ;
ii. differentiate between speed, velocity and
acceleration;
iii. deduce equations of uniformly accelerated
motion;
iv. solve problems of motion under gravity;
v. interpret distance-time graph and velocity-time
graph;
vi. compute instantaneous velocity and acceleration
vii. establish expressions for the range, maximum
height and time of flight of projectiles;
viii. solve problems involving projectile motion;
ix. interpret Newton’s laws of motion;
x. compare inertia, mass and force;
xi. deduce the relationship between mass and
acceleration;
xii. solve numerical problems involving impulse
and momentum;
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necessary)
(e) Motion in a circle:
(i) angular velocity and angular
acceleration
(ii) centripetal and centrifugal forces.
(iii) applications
(f) Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M):
(i) definition and explanation of simple
harmonic motion
(ii) examples of systems that execute
S.H.M
(iii) period frequency and amplitude of
S.H.M
(iv) velocity and acceleration of S.H.M
(v) energy change in S.H.M
4 Gravitational field
(i) Newton’s law of universal
gravitation
(ii) gravitational potential
(iii) conservative and non-conservative
fields
(iv) acceleration due to gravity
g = GM
R
(iv) variation of g on the earth’s
surface
(v) distinction between mass and
weight
(vi) escape velocity
(vii) parking orbit and weightlessness
5. Equilibrium of Forces
(a) equilibrium of a particles:
(i) equilibrium of coplanar forces
(ii) triangles and polygon of forces
(iii) Lami’s theorem
(b) principles of moments
(i) moment of a force
(ii) simple treatment and moment of a couple
(torgue)
(iii) applications
(c) conditions for equilibrium of rigid
bodies under the action of parallel and
non-parallel forces
(i) resolution and composition of forces in
two perpendicular directions,
xiii. interpret the law of conservation of linear
momentum;
xiv. establish expression for angular velocity,
angular acceleration and centripetal force;
xv. solve numerical problems involving motion in
a circle;
xvi. establish the relationship between period and
frequency;
xvii. analyse the energy changes occurring during
S.H.M
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the expression for gravitational force
between two bodies;
ii. apply Newton’s law of universal gravitation;
iii. give examples of conservative and non-
conservation fields;
iv. deduce the expression for gravitational field
potentials;
v. identify the causes of variation of g on the
earth’s surface;
vi. differentiate between mass and weight;
vii. determine escape velocity
Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the conditions for the equilibrium of
coplanar force to solve problems;
ii. use triangle and polygon laws of forces to solve
equilibrium problems;
iii. use Lami’s theorem to solve problems;
iv. analyse the principle of moment of a force;
v. determine moment of a force and couple;
vi. describe some applications of moment of a
force and couple;
vii. apply the conditions for the equilibrium of rigid
bodies to solve problems;
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(ii) resultant and equilibrant
(d) centre of gravity and stability
(i) stable, unstable and neutral equilibra
6. Work Energy and Power
(i) definition of work, energy and power
(ii) forms of energy
(iii) conservation of energy
(iv) qualitative treatment between different
forms of energy
(v) interpretation of area under the forcedistance curve
7. Friction
(i) static and dynamic friction
(ii) coefficient of limiting friction and its
determination.
(iv) reduction of friction
(v) qualitative treatment of viscosity and
terminal viscosity.
(vi) stoke’s law.
8. Simple Machines
(i) definition of machine
(ii) types of machines
(iii) mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and
efficiency of machines
9. Elasticity
(i) elastic limit, yield point, breaking point,
Hooke’s law and Young’s modulus
(ii) the spring balance as a device for measuring
force
(iii) work done in springs and elastic strings
10. Pressure
(a) Atmospheric Pressure
(i) definition of atmospheric pressure
(ii) units of pressure (S.I) units
(iii) measurement of pressure
(iv) simple mercury barometer,
aneroid barometer and manometer.
(v) variation of pressure with height
(vi) the use of barometer as an altimeter.
(b) Pressure in liquids
(i) the relationship between pressure, depth and
density (P = ρgh)
viii. resolve forces into two perpendicular
directions;
ix. determine the resultant and equilibrant of
forces;
x. differentiate between stable, unstable and
neutral equilibrate.
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between work, energy and power;
ii. compare different forms of energy, giving
examples;
iii. apply the principle of conservation of energy;
iv. examine the transformation between different
forms of energy;
v. interpret the area under the force –distance curve.
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between static and dynamic friction
ii. determine the coefficient of limiting friction;
iii. compare the advantages and disadvantage of
friction;
iv. suggest ways by which friction can be reduced;
v. analyse factors that affect viscosity and terminal
velocity;
vi. apply stoke’s law.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify different types of machines;
ii. solve problems involving simple machines.
Candidates should be able to:
i. interpret force-extension curves;
ii. interpret Hooke’s law and Young’s modulus of a
material;
iii use spring balance to measure force;
iv. determine the work done in spring and elastic
strings
Candidates should be able to:
i. recognize the S.I units of pressure;
ii. identify pressure measuring instruments;
iii. relate the variation of pressure to height;
iv. use a barometer as an altimeter.
v. determine the relationship between pressure,
depth and density;
Physics

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(ii) transmission of pressure in liquids (Pascal’s
Principle)
(iii) application
11. Liquids At Rest
(i) determination of density of solid and liquids
(ii) definition of relative density
(iii) upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid
(iv) Archimede’s principle and law of floatation
and applications, e.g. ships and
hydrometers.

12. Temperature and Its Measurement
(i) concept of temperature
(ii) thermometric properties
(iii) calibration of thermometers
(iv) temperature scales –Celsius and Kelvin.
(v) types of thermometers
(vi) conversion from one scale of temperature to
another
13. Thermal Expansion
(a) Solids
(i) definition and determination of linear,
volume and area expansivities
(ii) effects and applications, e.g. expansion in
building strips and railway lines
(iv) relationship between different
expansivities
(b) Liquids
(i) volume expansivity
(ii) real and apparent expansivities
(iii) determination of volume expansivity
(iv) anomalous expansion of water
14. Gas Laws
(i) Boyle’s law (PV = constant)
(ii) Charle’s law ( V = constant)
P
(iii) Pressure law ( P = constant )
T
(iv) absolute zero of temperature

(v) general gas quation
( PV = constant )
T
(vi) ideal gas equation
(Pv = nRT)
vi apply the principle of transmission of pressure
in liquids to solve problems;
vii. determine the application of pressure in liquid;
Candidates should be able to:
i. distinguish between density and relative density
of substances;
ii. determine the upthrust on a body immersed in a
liquid;
iii. apply Archimedes’ principle and law of
floatation to solve problems.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify thermometric properties of materials that
are used for different thermometers;
ii. calibrate thermometers;
iii. differentiate between temperature scales e.g
Clesius and Kelvin.
iv. compare the types of thermometers;
vi. convert from one scale of temperature to
another.
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine linear and volume expansivities;
ii. assess the effects and applications of thermal
expansivities;
iii. determine the relationship between different
expansivities;
iv. determine volume, apparent, and real
expansivities of liquids;
v. analyse the anomalous expansion of water.
Candidates should be able to:
i. interpret the gas laws;
ii. use expression of these laws to solve numerical
problems.
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15. Quantity of Heat
(i) heat as a form of energy
(ii) definition of heat capacity and specific
heat capacity of solids and liquids
(iii) determination of heat capacity and
specific heat capacity of substances by
simple methods e.g method of mixtures
and electrical method
16. Change of State
(i) latent heat
(ii) specific latent heats of fusion and
vaporization;
(iii) melting, evaporation and boiling
(iv) the influence of pressure and of dissolved
substances on boiling and melting points.
(v) application in appliances
17. Vapours
(i) unsaturated and saturated vapours
(ii) relationship between saturated vapour
pressure (S.V.P) and boiling
(iii) determination of S.V.P by barometer tube
method
(iv) formation of dew, mist, fog, and rain
(v) study of dew point, humidity and relative
humidity
(vi) hygrometry; estimation of the humidity of
the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb
hygrometers.
18. Structure of Matter and Kinetic Theory
(a) Molecular nature of matter
(i) atoms and molecules
(ii) molecular theory: explanation of Brownian
motion, diffusion, surface tension,
capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angles
of contact
(iii) examples and applications.
(b) Kinetic Theory
(i) assumptions of the kinetic theory
(ii) using the theory to explain the pressure
exerted by gas, Boyle’s law, Charles’ law,
melting, boiling, vapourization, change in
temperature evaporation, etc.
19. Heat Transfer
(i) conduction, convention and radiation as
modes of heat transfer
(ii) temperature gradient, thermal conductivity
and heat flux
(iii) effect of the nature of the surface on the
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between heat capacity and specific
heat capacity;
ii. determine heat capacity and specific heat
capacity using simple methods;
iii. examine some numerical problems.
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between latent heat and specific
latent heat of fusion and vaporization;
ii. differentiate between melting, evaporation and
boiling;
iii. examine the effects of pressure and of dissolved
substance on boiling and melting points.
Candidates should be able to:
i. distinguish between saturated and unsaturated
vapours;
ii. relate saturated vapour pressure to boiling point;
iii. determine S.V.P by barometer tube method;
iv. differentiate between dew point, humidity and
relative humidity;
vi. estimate the humidity of the atmosphere using
wet and dry bulb hydrometers.
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between atoms and molecules;
ii. use molecular theory to explain Brownian
motion , diffusion, surface, tension, capillarity,
adhesion, cohesion and angle of contact;
iii. examine the assumptions of kinetic theory;
iv. interpret kinetic theory, the pressure exerted by
gases Boyle’s law, Charle’s law melting,
boiling vaporization, change in temperature,
evaporation, etc.
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between conduction, convention and
radiation as modes of heat transfer;
ii. determine temperature gradient, thermal
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energy radiated and absorbed by it.
(iv) the conductivities of common materials.
(v) the thermos flask
(vii) land and sea breeze
20. Waves
(a) Production and Propagation
(i) wave motion,
(ii) vibrating systems as source of waves
(iii) waves as mode of energy transfer
(iv) distinction between particle motion and
wave motion
(v) relationship between frequency, wavelength
and wave velocity (V=f λ)
(vi) phase difference
(vii) progressive wave equation e.g
y = A sin 2π (vt + x)
λ
(b) Classification
(i) types of waves; mechanical and
electromagnetic waves
(ii) longitudinal and transverse waves
(iii) stationary and progressive waves
(iv) examples of waves from springs, ropes,
stretched strings and the ripple tank.
(c) Characteristics/Properties
(i) reflection, refraction, diffraction and
plane Polarization
(ii) superposition of waves e.g interference
21. Propagation of Sound Waves
(i) the necessity for a material medium
(ii) speed of sound in solids, liquids and air;
(iii) reflection of sound; echoes, reverberation
and their applications
(iv) disadvantages of echoes and reverberations
22. Characteristics of Sound Waves
(i) noise and musical notes
(ii) quality, pitch, intensity and loudness and
their application to musical instruments;
(iii) simple treatment of overtones produced by
conductivity and heat flux;
iii. assess the effect of the nature of the surface on
the energy radiated and absorbed by it;
iv. compare the conductivities of common
materials;
v. relate the component part of the working of the
vi. differentiate between land and sea breeze.
Candidates should be able to:
i. interpret wave motion;
ii. identify vibrating systems as sources of waves;
iii use waves as a mode of energy transfer;
iv distinguish between particle motion and wave
motion;
v. relate frequency and wave length to wave
velocity;
vi. determine phase difference;
vii. use the progressive wave equation to compute
basic wave parameters;
viii. differentiate between mechanical and
electronmagnetic waves;
ix. differentiate between longitudinal and
transverse waves
x. distinguish between stationary and progressive
waves;
xi. indicate the example of waves generated from
springs, ropes, stretched strings and the ripple
tank;
xii. differentiate between reflection, refraction,
diffraction and plane polarization of waves;
xiii. analyse the principle of superposition of
waves.
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine the need for a material medium in the
propagation of sound waves;
ii. compare the speed of sound in solids, liquids
and air;
iii. relate the effects of temperature and pressure to
the speed of sound in air;
iv. solve problem on echoes, reverberation;
v. compare the disadvantages and echoes.
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between noise and musical notes;
ii. analyse quality, pitch, intensity and loudness of
sound notes;
iii. evaluate the application of (ii) above in the
Physics

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vibrating strings and their columns
Fo= l T
2L m
(iv) acoustic examples of resonance
(v) frequency of a note emitted by air columns
in closed and open pipes in relation to
their lengths.
23. Light Energy
(a) Source of Light:
(i) natural and artificial source of light
(ii) luminous and non-luminous objects
(b) Propagation of light
(i) speed, frequency and wavelength of light
(ii) formation of shadows and eclipse
(iii) the pin-hole camera.
24. Reflection of Light at Plane and Curved
Surfaces
(i) laws of reflection.
(ii) application of reflection of light
(iii) formation of images by plane, concave
and convex mirrors and ray diagrams
(iv) use of the mirror formula
l = l + l
f u v
(v) linear magnification
25. Refraction of Light Through
(a) Plane and Curved Surface
(i) explanation of refraction in terms of
velocity of light in the media.
(ii) laws of refraction
(iii) definition of refractive index of a medium
(iv) determination of refractive index of glass
and liquid using Snell’s law
(v) real and apparent depth and lateral
displacement
(vi) critical angle and total internal reflection
(b) Glass Prism
(i) use of the minimum deviation formula
A + D
u = sin 2

sin A
2
construction of musical instruments;
iv. identify overtones by vibrating stings and air
columns;
v. itemize acoustical examples of resonance;
vi. determine the frequencies of notes emitted by
air columns in open and closed pipes in relation
to their lengths.
Candidates should be able to:
i. compare the natural and artificial sources of
light;
ii. differentiate between luminous and non
luminous objects;
iii. relate the speed, frequency and wavelength of
light;
iv. interpret the formation of shadows and eclipses;
v. solve problems using the principle of operation
of a pin-hole camera.
Candidates should be able to:
i. interpret the laws of reflection;
ii. illustrate the formation of images by plane,
concave and convex mirrors;
iii. apply the mirror formula to solve optical
problems;
iv. determine the linear magnification;
v. apply the laws of reflection of light to the
working of periscope, kaleidoscope and the
sextant.
Candidates should be able to:
i. interpret the laws of reflection;
ii. determine the refractive index of glass and liquid
using Snell’s law;
iii. determine the refractive index using the
principle of real and apparent depth;
iv. determine the conditions necessary for total
internal reflection;
v. examine the use of periscope, prism, binoculars,
optical fibre;
vi. apply the principles of total internal reflection to
the formation of mirage;
vii. use of lens formula and ray diagrams to solve
optical numerical problems;
viii. determine the magnification of an image;
ix. calculate the refractive index of a glass prism
using minimum deviation formula.
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(ii) type of lenses

(iii) use of lens formula
l = l + l
f u v

(iv) magnification
26. Optical Instruments
(i) the principles of microscopes, telescopes,
projectors, cameras and the human eye
(physiological details of the eye are not
required)
(ii) power of a lens
(iii) angular magnification
(iv) near and far points
(v) sight defects and their corrections
27. (a) dispersion of light and colours
(i) dispersion of white light by a triangular
prism
(ii) production of pure spectrum
(iii) colour mixing by addition and subtraction
(iv) colour of objects and colour filters
(b) electgromagnetic spectrum
(i) description of sources and uses of various
28. Electrostatics
(i) existence of positive and negative charges
in matter
(ii) charging a body by friction, contact and
induction
(iii) electroscope
(iv) coulomb’s inverse square law electric field
and potential
(v) electric field and potential
(vi) electric discharge and lightning
29. Capacitors
(i) functions of capacitors
(ii) parallel plate capacitors
(iii) capacitance of a capacitors
(iv) the relationship between capacitance, area
separation of plates and medium between
Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the principles of operation of optical
instruments to solve problems;
ii. distinguish between the human eye and the
cameras;
iii. calculate the power of a lens;
iv. determine the angular magnification of optical
instruments;
v. determine the near and far points;
vi. detect sight defects and their corrections.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate the expression for gravitational force
between two bodies;
ii. apply Newton’s law of universal gravitation;
iii. identify primary colours and obtain secondary
colours by mixing;
iv. deduces why objects have colours;
v. analyse colours using colour filters
vi. analyse the electromagnetic spectrum in relation
to their wavelengths, sources, detection and uses
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify charges;
ii. examine uses of an electronscope;
iii. apply coulomb’s square law of electrostatic to
solve problems;
iv. deduce expressions for electric field and
potential;
v. identify electric field flux patterns of isolated
and iteracting charges;
vi. analyse the distribution of charges on a
conductor and how it is used in lightening
conductors.
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine uses of capacitors;
ii. analyse parallel plate capacitors;
iii. determine the capacitance of a capacitors;
iv. analyse the factors that affect the capacitance of
a capacitor;
Physics the plates.

C = 3A
d
(v) capacitors in series and parallel
(vi) energy stored in a capacitor
30. Electric Cells
(i) simple voltaic cell and its defects;
(ii) Daniel cell, Leclanche cell (wet and dry)
(iii) lead –acid accumulator and Nickel-Iron
(Nife) Lithium lon and Mercury cadmium
(iv) maintenance of cells and batteries (detail
treatment of the chemistry of a cell is not
required
(v) arrangement of cells
31. Current Electricity
(i) electromagnetic force (emf), potential
difference (p.d.), current, internal
resistance of a cell and lost Volt
(ii) Ohm’s law
(iii) measurement of resistance
(iv) meter bridge
(v) resistance in series and in parallel and
their combination
(vi) the potentiometer method of measuring
emf, current and internal resistance of a
cell.
32. Electrical Energy and Power
(i) concepts of electrical energy and power
(ii) commercial unit of electric energy and
power
(iii) electric power transmission
(iv) heating effects of electric current.
33. Magnets and Magnetic Fields
(i) natural and artificial magnets
(ii) magnetic properties of soft iron and steel
(iii) methods of making magnets and
demagnetization
(iv) concept of magnetic field
(v) magnetic field of a permanent magnet
(vi) magnetic field round a straight current
carrying conductor, circular wire and
solenoid
(vii) properties of the earth’s magnetic field;
north and south poles, magnetic meridian
v. solve problems involving the arrangement of
capacitor;
vi. determine the energy stored in capacitors
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the defects of the simple voltaic cell and
their corrected;
ii. compare different types of cells including solar
cell;
iii. compare the advantages of lead-acid and Nikel
iron accumulator;
iv. solve problems involving series and parallel
combination of cells.
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between emf, p.d., current and
internal resistant of a cell;
ii. apply Ohm’s law to solve problems;
iii. use metre bridge to calculate resistance;
iv. compute effective total resistance of both
parallel and series arrangement of resistors;
v. determine the resistivity and the conductivity of
a conductor;
vi. measure emf. current and internal resistance of
a cell using the potentiometer.
Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the expressions of electrical energy and
power to solve problems;
ii. analyse how power is transmitted from the
power station to the consumer;
iii. identify the heating effects of current and its
uses.
Candidates should be able to:
i. give examples of natural and artificial magnets
ii. differentiate between the magnetic properties of
soft iron and steel;
iii. identify the various methods of making magnets
and demagnetizing magnets;
iv. describe how to keep a magnet from losing its
magnetism;
v. determine the flux pattern exhibited when two
magnets are placed together pole to pole;
vi. determine the flux of a current carrying
conductor, circular wire and solenoid including
the polarity of the solenoid;

and angle of dip and declination
(viii) flux and flux density
(ix) variation of magnetic field intensity over
the earth’s surface
(x) applications: earth’s magnetic field in
navigation and mineral exploration.
34. Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor in
a
Magnetic Field
(i) quantitative treatment of force between
two parallel current-carrying conductors
(ii) force on a charge moving in a magnetic
field;
(iii) the d. c. motor
(iv) electromagnets
(v) carbon microphone
(vi) moving coil and moving iron instruments
(vii) conversion of galvanometers to
ammeters and voltmeter using shunts
and multipliers
35. (a) Electromagnetic Induction
(i) Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic
induction
(ii) factors affecting induced emf
(iii) Lenz’s law as an illustration of the
principle of conservation of energy
(iv) a.c. and d.c generators
(v) transformers
(vi) the induction coil
(b) Inductance
(i) explanation of inductance
(ii) unit of inductance
(iii) energy stored in an inductor
E=

I2L
(iv) application/uses of inductors
(c) Eddy Current
(i) reduction of eddy current
(ii) applications of eddy current
vii. determine the flux pattern of magnetic placed
in the earth’s magnetic fields;
viii. identify the magnetic elements of the earth’s
flux;
ix. determine the variation of earth’s magnetic
field on the earth’s surface;
x. examine the applications of the earth’s magnetic
field.
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine the direction of force on a current
carrying conductor using Fleming’s left-hand
rule;
ii. interpret the attractive and repulsive forces
between two parallel current-carrying
conductors using diagrams;
iii. determine the relationship between the force,
magnetic field strength, velocity and the angle
through which the charge enters the field;
iv. interpret the working of the d. c. motor;
v. analyse the principle of electromagnets give
examples of its application;
vi. compare moving iron and moving coil
instruments;
vii. convert a galvanometer into an ammeter or a
voltmeter.
Candidates should be able to:
i. interpret the laws of electromagnetic induction;
ii. identify factors affecting induced emf;
iii. recognize how Lenz’s law illustrates the
principle of conservation of energy;
iv. interpret the diagrammatic set up of A. C.
generators;
v. identify the types of transformer;
vi. examine principles of operation of transformers;
vii. assess the functions of an induction coil;
viii. draw some conclusions from the principles of
operation of an induction coil;
ix. interpret the inductance of an inductor;
x. recognize units of inductance;
xi. calculate the effective total inductance in series
and parallel arrangement;
xii. deduce the expression for the energy stored in
an inductor;
xiii. examine the applications of inductors;
xiv. describe the method by which eddy current
losses can be reduced.
xv. determine ways by which eddy currents can be
used.
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36. Simple A. C. Circuits
(i) explanation of a.c. current and voltage
(ii) peak and r.m.s. values
(iii) a.c. source connected to a resistor;
(iv) a.c source connected to a capacitorcapacitive reactance
(v) a.c source connected to an inductorinductive
reactance
(vi) series R-L-C circuits
(vii) vector diagram
(viii) reactance and impedance of alternative
quantities
(ix) effective voltage in an R-L-C circuits
(x) resonance and resonance frequency
F0 = 1
2π LC
37. Conduction of Electricity Through
(a) liquids

(i) electrolytes and non-electrolyte
(ii) concept of electrolysis
(iii) Faraday’s law of electrolysis
(iv) application of electrolysis, e.g
electroplating, calibration of ammeter etc.
(b) gases
(i) discharge through gases (quantitative
treatment only)
(ii) application of conduction of electricity
through gases
38. Elementary Modern Physics
(i) models of the atom and their limitations
(ii) elementary structure of the atom;
(iii) energy levels and spectra
(iv) thermionic and photoelectric emissions;
(v) Einstein’s equation and stopping potential
(vi) applications of thermionic emissions and
photoelectric effects
(vii) simple method of production of x-rays
(viii) properties and applications of alpha, beta
and gamma rays
(xiii) half-life and decay constant
(xiv) simple ideas of production of energy by
fusion and fission
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify a.c. current of and d. d. voltage;
ii. differentiate between the peak and r.m.s. values
of a.c.;
iii. determine the phase difference between current
and voltage;
iv. interpret series R-L-C circuits;
v. analyse vector diagrams;
vi. calculate the effective voltage reactance and
impedance;
vii. recognize the condition by which the circuit is
at resonance;
viii. determine the resonant frequency of R-L-C
arrangement;
ix. determine the instantaneous power, average
power and the power factor in a. c. circuits
Candidates should be able to:
i. distinguish between electrolytes and non-
electrolytes;
ii. analyse the processes of electrolytes;
iii. apply Faraday’s laws of electrolysis to solve
problems;
iv. analyse discharge through gases;
v. determine some applications/uses of conduction
of electricity through gases.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the models of the atom and write their
limitation;
ii. describe elementary structure of the atom;
iii. differentiate between the energy levels and
spectra of atoms;
iv. compare thermionic emission and photoelectric
emissions;
v. apply Einstein’s equation to solve problems of
photoelectric effect;
vi. calculate the stopping potential;
vii. relate some application of thermionic emission
and photoelectric effects;
viii. interpret the process involved in the
production of x-rays;p
ix identify some properties and application of
x-rays
Physics

(xv) binding energy, mass defect and
Einsterin’s Energy equation

∆E = ∆Mc2
(xvi) wave-particle paradox (duality of matter)
(xvii) electron diffraction
(xviii) the uncertainty principle
39. Introductory Electronics
(i) distinction between metals, semiconductors
and insulators (elementary knowledge of
band gap is required)
(ii) intrinsic and extrinsic semi-conductors;
(iii) uses of semiconductors and diodes in
rectification and transistors in amplification
(iv) n-type and p-type semi-conductors
(v) elementary knowledge of diodes and
transistors
(vi) use of semiconductors and diodes in
rectification and transistors in amplification.
x. analyse elementary radioactivity;
xi. distinguish between stable and unstable
nuclei;
xii. identify isotopes of an element;
xiii. compare the properties of alpha, beta and
gamma rays;
xiv. relate half-life and decay constant of a
xv. determine the binding energy, mass defect and
Einsterin’s energy equation;
xvi. analyse wave particle duality;
xvii. solve some numerical problems based on the
uncertainty principle.
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between conductors, semi-
conductors and insulators;
ii. distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic
semiconductors;
iii. distinguish between electron and hole carriers;
iv. distinguish between n-type and p-type
semiconductor;
v. analyse diodes and transistor (detailed
characteristics of transistor not required);
vi. relate diodes to rectification and transistor to
amplification.

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