JAMB Geography Syllabus 2023

JAMB Geography Syllabus 2023

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Geography is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:

1. handle and interpret topographical maps, statistical data and diagrams, and basic field survey;
2. demonstrate knowledge of man’s physical and human environment and how man lives and
earns a living on earth surface with special reference to Nigeria and Africa;
3. show understanding of the interrelationship between man and his environment;
4. apply geographical concepts, skills, and principles to solving problems.

a. Scale and measurement distances, areas reduction and enlargement, directions, bearings, and gradients with reference to topographical maps.
b. Map reading and interpretation; drawing of cross profiles, recognition of intervisibility, recognition, and description of physical and human features and relationships as depicted on topographical maps.
c. Interpretation of statistical data; maps and diagrams
d. Elementary Surveying chain and prismatic, open and close traverse, procedure, problems, advantages
and disadvantages.

Candidates should be able to:

ai apply the different types of scale to distances and area measurement;
ii apply the knowledge of scale to gradients, map reduction, and enlargement;
bi illustrates the relief of an area through the profile
ii interpret physical and human features from topographical maps.
ci Compute quantitative information from statistical data, diagrams, and maps,
ii. interpret statistical data, diagrams, and maps.
di. analyze the principle and procedure of each technique;
ii. compare the advantages of the two

a. The earth as a planet
i. The earth in the solar system, rotation, and revolution;
ii. The shape and size of the earth
iii. Latitudes and distances, longitudes and time;
iv. The structure of the earth (internal and external).
b. Rocks
I Types and characteristics
ii Modes of formation
iii Uses of rocks
c Landforms
i processes; earth movements (faulting, folding, earthquakes, volcanicity), erosion, transportation, and deposition.

ii Modifying agents; water (surface and Underground) wind and sea waves;
iii Types of landforms associated with the Processes and agents specified above (Karst topography, plains fold mountains, faulted landforms, volcanic mountains, deltas, river terraces, barchans seifs and zeugens).
d. Water Bodies
i. Oceans and seas (world distribution, salinity and uses); Candidates should be able to:
ai identify the relative positions of the planets in the solar system;
ii relate the effects of the rotation to the revolution of the earth;
iii provide proof for the shape and size of the earth;

iv differentiate between latitude and longitude;
v relate latitude to the calculation of distance;
vi relate longitude to the calculation of time;
vii compare the internal and external components of the earth.
bi differentiate between major types of rocks and their Characteristics;
ii analyze the processes of formation and the resultant features;
iii indicate the uses of rocks.

ci distinguish between the internal and the
external processes of landforms development;
ii identify the agents of denudation;
iii associate landforms with each process and agent.
di locate oceans and seas on the globe;
ii examine the characteristics and uses of Ocean and seas;

ii Ocean currents – types, distribution, causes and effects;
iii Lakes – types, distribution and uses.
e Weather and Climate
i Concept of weather and climate
ii Elements of weather and climate
iii Factors controlling weather and climate
(pressure, air, mass, altitude, continentality and winds);
iv Classification of climate (Greek and Koppen).
v Major climate types (Koppen), their Characteristics and distribution.
vi Measuring and recording weather
parameters and instruments used.
f Vegetation
i Factors controlling growth of plants
ii The concept of vegetation e.g. plant
communities and succession
iii Major types of vegetation, their
characteristics, and distribution,
iv Impact of human activities on vegetation.
g Soils

i. Definition and properties
ii. Factors and processes of formation
iii. Soil profiles
iv. Major tropical types, their
characteristics, distribution and uses;
iii classify the types of ocean currents;
iv account for the distribution of ocean currents;
v evaluate the causes and effects of ocean currents;
vi identify the types and location of lakes;
vii indicate the characteristics and uses of lakes
ei differentiate between weather and climate;
ii differentiate between the elements of weather and climate;
iii isolate the factors controlling weather and climate;
iv compare Koppen’s and Greek’s classifications
v identify the major types of climate according to Koppen;
vii relate the weather instruments to their uses.
fi trace the factors controlling the growth of plants;
ii analyze the process of vegetation development;
iii identify the types, their characteristics and distribution;
iv assess the impact of human activities on vegetation;
gi classify soils and their
ii. properties;
ii. isolate the factors of formation;
iii. differentiate between the different types of soil horizons and their characteristics;

v. Impact of human activities on soils.
h Environmental Resources;
i Types of resources (atmospheric, land, soil, Vegetation and minerals);
ii The concept of renewable and non-renewable resources;
I Environmental interaction:
i Land ecosystem
ii Environmental balance and human interaction
j Environmental: hazards
i. Natural hazards (droughts, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding)
ii. Man-induced (soil erosion, deforestation, pollution, flooding Desertification)
iii. Effects, prevention, and control of hazards.

a. Population
i. World population with particular reference to the Amazon Basin, N.E.
iv. compare the major tropical soil types and uses of soils;
v. account for the distribution and uses of soils;
vi. assess the impact of human activities on soils.
hi. interpret the concept of environmental resources;
ii. relate environmental resources to their uses;
iii. differentiate between the concepts of renewable and non-renewable resources.
Ii. identify the components of the land ecosystem;
ii. establish the interrelationship within the ecosystem;
iii. interpret the concept of ecological balance;
iv. analyse the effects of human activities on land ecosystem.
ji identify the natural hazards and their causes
ii. relate the human-induced hazards to their causes;
iii. locate the major areas where they are common and their effects;
iv. recommend possible methods of prevention and control.
Candidates should be able to:
ai. identify the characteristics of the population (growth rates and structure);
ii. determine the factors and the patterns of

U.S.A., India, Japan, and the West
Coast of Southern Africa.
ii. Characteristics – birth and death rates,
ages/sex structure.
iii. Factors and patterns of population
iv . Factors and problems of population
b. Settlement with particular reference to
Western Europe, Middle East and West
i. Types and patterns: Rural and Urban, Dispersed, nucleated and linear;
ii. Rural settlement: classification, factors of growth and functions;
iii. Urban settlement – classification, factors for growth and functions.
iv. Problems of urban centers
v. Interrelationship between rural and urban settlements.
c. Selected economic activities
i. Types of economic activities: primary,
secondary and tertiary;
ii. Manufacturing industries, types, locational factors, distribution, and socio-economic importance, and problems of
industrialization in tropical Africa.
iii. Transportation and Communication types,
roles in economic development and
communication in tropical Africa.
iv. World trade factors and pattern of world trade, major commodities (origin, routes, and destinations). population distribution;
iii. identify the factors and problems of population growth;
iv. relate the types of migration to their causes and effects;
v. account for the ways population constitutes
a resource.
bi differentiate between types of Settlements;
ii. classify the patterns and functions of rural settlements;
iii. classify the patterns and functions of urban settlement;
iv. establish the interrelationship between rural and urban settlements;
ci. identify the types of economic activities;
ii. differentiate between the types of economic activities;
iii. compare the types of manufacturing industries;
iv. identify the factors of industrial location;
iii. examine the socio-economic importance of manufacturing industries;
iv. give reasons for the problems of industrialization in tropical Africa;
v. differentiate between the types and means of transportation and communication;
vi. assess the economic importance of

A. Nigeria
a Broad outline
i. Location, position, size, political division

(states) and peoples;
ii Physical settling: geology, relief,
climate and drainage, vegetation and
iii Population: size, distribution, migration,
(types, problems and effects);
iv Natural Resources: types (minerals, soils,
Water, vegetation etc) distribution, uses
v. Agricultural Systems: the major crops
produced, problems of agricultural
development in Nigeria.
vi. Manufacturing Industries: factors of
location, types of products, marketing
and problems associated with
vii. Transportation and trade: modes of
transportation and their relative
advantages and disadvantages, regional
and international trade.
transport and;
vii. give reasons for the problems of
transportation in tropical Africa;
viii. relate the factors to the pattern of world
ix. classify the major commodities of trade in
terms of their origins, routes and
Candidates should be able to:
Ai describe the location, size and political
Divisions of Nigeria.
ii. identify the ethnic groups and their
iii. relate the components of physical settings to
their effects on human activities;
iv. account for the pattern of population
v. examine the types of migration, their
problems and effects;
vi. identify the types of natural resources
and their distribution;
vii. indicate their uses and conservation;
viii. compare the farming systems practiced in
ix. identify the crops produced and the problems
x. identify the types and location of the major
manufacturing industries;
xi. determine the factors of industrial location
and the problems associated with the
xii. establish the relationship between transport
and trade;
xiii. relate the modes of transportation to their
relative advantages and

b. Geographical Regions of Nigeria
i Eastern Highlands;
ii Eastern Scarpland;
iii Northern Central Highland
iv Western Highlands;
v Sokoto Plains;
vi. Niger-Benue trough;
vii. Cross River Basin;
viii Southern Coastland each region
analysed under the following sub-
headings: physical setting (relief,
drainage etc) people, population and
settlements, modes of exploitation of
natural resources, transportation and
problems of development.
B. The Rest of Africa:
a Africa on broad outline;
i Location, size, position, political
settings (relief, drainage, climate
type, Vegetation type etc).
ii. Distribution of major minerals
b Selected Topics
i Lumbering in equatorial Africa with
particular reference to Cote d’voire
(Ivory Coast) and the Democratic
Republic of Congo.

ii Irrigation Agriculture in the Nile and
Niger Basin;
xiv. classify the major commodities of
regional and international trade;
bi. Identify each geographical region and
its distinctive features;
ii. identify the people of each region and the
settlement pattern;
iii. account for the mode of resource
exploitation in each region;
iv. examine the modes and problems of
transportation in each region;
v. give reasons for the problem of
development in each region;
vi. Suggest solutions.
ai. Identify the location, size and political
Division of Africa;
ii. relate the components of the physical
setting to the effect on human
iii describe the distribution of major minerals.
bi analyse the factors that favour the
Development of lumbering in the
identified areas;
ii. examine the methods and problem
iii. assess the economic importance of
iv. account for the reason for irrigation in the

iii Plantation Agriculture in West and East Africa
iv Fruit Farming in the Mediterranea Regions of Africa.
v Mineral Exploitation
– Gold mining in South Africa
– Copper mining in the Democratic
Republic of the Congo
– Crude oil production in Algeria and Libya
vi Population Distribution in West Africa
vii International Economic Cooperation in
West Africa, e.g. ECOWAS
v. compare the methods and major crops
vi. identify the problems associated with
irrigation in the area;
vii account for plantation agriculture and its
viii. relate the methods of management to the
crops produced;
ix assess the economic importance of
plantation agriculture;
x identify the conditions that favour fruit
farming in the area;
xi relate the major areas of fruit farming to
types of fruits produced;
xii assess the economic importance and
problems associated with fruit farming in
the area;
xiii proffer solutions to the problems;
xiv identify the area of production and the
method of mining each mineral in the
specified country;
xv relate the economic importance of the
mineral to the region;
xvi determine the problems of associated with
the exploitation of the mineral in each
xvii account for the pattern of population
distribution in West Africa;
xviii indicate the factors influencing the pattern
of distribution;
xix identify the member countries;
xx examine the objectives for which
ECOWAS was established;
xxi evaluate the prospect and problems of the

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