State is defined as a territory with its own government and borders within a larger country.

(i)Sovereignty; This is arguably one of the most crucial attribute of a state. It is the authority to make its own decisions, policies, reforms, public affairs, and external affairs with little or no interference from other entities. An entity is sovereign in the sense that it owes no other nation allegiance. Besides domestic sovereignty, the state possesses external sovereignty. This implies that it has the exclusive right to determine its relations with other states.

(ii)Population; A state cannot exist without a settled population. In other words, to be recognized, it must be inhabited by human beings. This implies that an uninhabited portion of the earth, by itself, is not a state but can be part of one. Moreover, the said population must be largely settled on a permanent basis and not a nomadic one.

(iii)Government A government is a machinery of people that enforces rules and regulations through the common law of the land. This body is typically made up of people with elective and appointive positions who work together to deliver the citizens’ needs. In other words government is supposed to make and implement public policies, often guided by a written document known as a constitution.

(iv)Territory; For a community of people to be described as a state, it must occupy a clearly defined territory. A state can only exist within territorial borders. These borders determine the size of the state, the area it can govern, and the areas where its neighboring countries begin. Besides dry land, a country’s territory also includes its airspace and maritime territory.

(v)Laws and structures; state must have a set of laws that govern the population. In most countries, this set of laws is outlined in a document known as the constitution. The laws determine acceptable behavioural norms and are obligatory for every citizen. The rules and laws are sanctioned by the government and enforced through various law enforcement agencies. Besides the laws, a state must also have defined structures.

(i) Lobbying: Lobbying involves direct communication with government officials, lawmakers, or other influential individuals to advocate for specific policies or interests. Pressure groups use lobbying to provide information, present arguments, and exert influence through personal meetings, letters, phone calls, or emails.

(ii) Public Relations: Pressure groups often use public relations strategies to shape public opinion and gain support for their cause. They may organize public campaigns, rallies, demonstrations, or press conferences to raise awareness, generate media coverage, and mobilize public support.

(iii) Grassroots Mobilization: Pressure groups understand the power of grassroots mobilization, where they engage and activate their members and supporters at the local level. This technique involves organizing community events, door-to-door campaigns, petitions, or letter-writing campaigns to demonstrate widespread public support and create a sense of urgency.

(iv) Litigation: Pressure groups may resort to legal action to challenge government policies or decisions. They may file lawsuits or support individuals or organizations in legal battles to advance their cause. Litigation can be used to influence judicial interpretations, set legal precedents, or bring attention to specific issues.

(v) Campaign Financing: Pressure groups often contribute to political campaigns or support candidates who align with their goals. By providing financial support, they seek to gain favor and access to decision-makers. This technique allows pressure groups to influence policy decisions indirectly through their chosen candidates.

(vi) Research and Policy Analysis: Pressure groups invest in research and policy analysis to provide evidence-based arguments supporting their positions. They produce reports, studies, and white papers to demonstrate the potential impacts of specific policies, economic benefits, or social implications. This information helps pressure groups make persuasive cases to policymakers and the public.

(i) Merit-based recruitment and promotion: Implement a system that emphasizes meritocracy in the selection and promotion of civil servants. Candidates should be evaluated based on their qualifications, skills, and experience, rather than their political affiliations or connections.

(ii) Code of conduct: Establish a clear and comprehensive code of conduct that outlines the expected behavior and responsibilities of civil servants. This code should include provisions that prohibit engaging in political activities or expressing partisan views while performing official duties.

(iii) Political neutrality training: Provide mandatory training programs for civil servants to develop an understanding of their role as politically neutral public servants. These training sessions can focus on promoting ethical behavior, avoiding conflicts of interest, and understanding the importance of impartiality.

(iv) Independent oversight bodies: Establish independent oversight bodies responsible for monitoring and enforcing non-partisanship among civil servants. These bodies can investigate allegations of partisan behavior, ensure compliance with the code of conduct, and recommend appropriate disciplinary actions if necessary.

(v) Protecting whistleblower rights: Implement mechanisms to protect civil servants who report violations of non-partisanship or unethical behavior. Whistleblower protection laws should be in place to safeguard individuals who come forward with information about political interference or misconduct.

(vi) Transparent performance evaluation: Develop a robust and transparent performance evaluation system that assesses civil servants based on objective criteria and measurable outcomes. This system should be free from political interference and provide fair assessments of individual performance, fostering a culture of professionalism and non-partisanship.

_Part B Answer 3 Questions Here_
(i) Centralized Power: Military rule typically concentrates power in the hands of a small group of military leaders or a single military dictator. The military establishment exercises significant authority and influence over the government, often overshadowing or sidelining civilian institutions.

(ii) Suspension of Civil Liberties: Military rule often involves the curtailment or suspension of civil liberties and fundamental rights. Freedom of speech, assembly, and association may be restricted, and censorship may be imposed to control the flow of information and limit dissenting voices.

(iii) Suppression of Political Opposition: Military regimes tend to suppress or eliminate political opposition. Political parties and opposition groups may be banned, and dissenting voices may face persecution, imprisonment, or even violence. Elections, if held at all, may be tightly controlled or manipulated to maintain the military’s grip on power.

(iv) Authoritarian Governance: Military rule is typically characterized by authoritarian governance, where decision-making authority lies with a small group of military leaders. Civilian institutions may be weakened or dismantled, and the military often plays a dominant role in policymaking, law enforcement, and administration.

(v) Martial Law and Emergency Powers: Military rule frequently involves the imposition of martial law or emergency powers, granting the military extensive control and authority over civilian life. These powers may include the suspension of constitutional rights, imposition of curfews, and increased surveillance to maintain order and suppress dissent.

(vi) Focus on National Security: Military regimes often prioritize national security concerns and defense matters above other social and economic issues. Policies and resources are directed towards maintaining and expanding military capabilities, often at the expense of social welfare programs or development initiatives.

(i) Political Instability: The Action Group crises led to a period of political instability in Nigeria. The conflict within the party resulted in factionalism and infighting, weakening the overall political structure. The government was unable to effectively address pressing issues and provide stable governance, creating a sense of uncertainty and distrust among the population.

(ii) Regional Divisions: The crises exacerbated regional divisions within Nigeria. The Action Group had strong support in the Western region, and the internal conflicts intensified the divide between the Western region and other regions of the country. This further heightened ethnic and regional tensions, making it challenging to foster national unity and cooperation.

(iii) Decline of the Action Group: The crises significantly weakened the Action Group as a political force. The party splintered into factions, leading to a loss of public confidence and electoral support. The internal power struggles and divisions within the party contributed to its decline and eventual marginalization in Nigerian politics.

(iv) Rise of Military Intervention: The crises created a power vacuum and a perception of political instability. This provided an opportunity for the military to intervene in the political affairs of Nigeria. The subsequent military coups in 1966 and the subsequent military rule that followed were influenced, in part, by the fragility of the political system resulting from the Action Group crises.

(v) Erosion of Democratic Processes: The Action Group crises highlighted the fragility of Nigeria’s democratic processes. The breakdown of trust and the use of violence within the party undermined the principles of democracy, such as fair elections and peaceful transitions of power. This erosion of democratic values had long-lasting implications for Nigeria’s governance and political system.

(vi) Socioeconomic Impact: The political instability caused by the Action Group crises had adverse effects on Nigeria’s socioeconomic development. The government’s focus shifted away from addressing critical issues such as infrastructure development, education, and poverty reduction. The lack of effective governance hindered progress and impeded the country’s overall development trajectory.

(i) National Security: Ensuring national security is a primary concern for any country, and it significantly influences foreign policy decisions. Nigeria faces security challenges such as terrorism, insurgency, and cross-border conflicts. These security concerns drive Nigeria’s foreign policy objectives, including cooperation with regional and international partners, intelligence sharing, and efforts to combat terrorism.

(ii) Economic Interests: Economic considerations play a crucial role in shaping Nigeria’s foreign policy. Nigeria is an oil-rich nation, and its economy heavily relies on oil exports. Therefore, maintaining favorable economic relations with other countries, attracting foreign investments, securing access to international markets, and diversifying its economy are key foreign policy objectives for Nigeria.

(iii) Regional Leadership: As the most populous country in Africa and a regional power, Nigeria seeks to exert leadership and influence within the African continent. Nigeria plays an active role in regional organizations like the African Union (AU), Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), and the Gulf of Guinea Commission. Nigeria’s foreign policy aims to promote stability, peacekeeping efforts, conflict resolution, and economic integration within Africa.

(iv) Political Stability: Nigeria’s foreign policy is influenced by the need to maintain political stability both domestically and in its neighboring countries. Internal political stability allows Nigeria to project a positive image internationally and enhances its ability to engage in diplomacy, trade, and cooperation with other nations.

(v) Historical Factors: Historical experiences and relationships also shape Nigeria’s foreign policy. Nigeria was a former British colony and gained independence in 1960. Its history of colonization and struggles for independence have influenced its worldview and foreign policy objectives. Nigeria maintains close ties with other Commonwealth countries, particularly those in Africa, and seeks to promote African solidarity and decolonization.

(vi) Global Alliances and Multilateralism: Nigeria actively participates in international organizations such as the United Nations (UN) and strives to maintain positive relationships with major global powers. Nigeria’s foreign policy seeks to leverage its position within these organizations and forge alliances to advance its national interests, promote peace and security, and address global challenges such as climate change, human rights, and sustainable development.

Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided and shared between a central authority and constituent political units, such as states or provinces. It establishes a dual sovereignty structure, where the central government and the regional governments each have their respective powers and responsibilities. Federalism allows for a distribution of power that aims to balance the interests of both the central government and the regional units.

(i) Representation and Participation: Creating new states within a federation allows for a more inclusive and representative political system. It ensures that diverse regions or communities have a voice and can actively participate in decision-making processes at both the regional and national levels. State creation can help address regional imbalances and promote a sense of belonging and identity among different groups within a country.

(ii) Decentralization of Power: By creating new states, power is decentralized and shared among multiple regional entities. This can prevent the concentration of power in a single central authority and promote local governance. Decentralization allows for more effective and responsive administration, as regional governments can address local issues and priorities more directly.

(iii) Regional Development and Resource Allocation: State creation can be motivated by the need to promote balanced regional development and ensure equitable distribution of resources. It allows for specific regions to have greater control over their own resources and development plans. This can lead to focused development initiatives, tailored to the specific needs and priorities of each region, thus reducing regional disparities.

(iv) Cultural and Linguistic Autonomy: Creating states within a federation can provide protection and autonomy for distinct cultural, linguistic, or ethnic communities. It allows for the preservation and promotion of local languages, customs, traditions, and identities. State creation can empower communities to safeguard their cultural heritage and exercise their right to self-determination within the framework of a larger federal structure.

(v) Conflict Resolution and Peaceful Coexistence: In some cases, state creation can be a means to resolve long-standing conflicts or ethnic tensions within a country. By granting greater autonomy and self-governance to specific regions, it may help accommodate the aspirations of different communities and foster peaceful coexistence. State creation can serve as a mechanism for managing diversity and promoting stability within a federation.

(i) Emir/Sarki: The Emir or Sarki was the supreme executive authority in the Hausa Fulani administration. Their duties included maintaining law and order, overseeing the administration, and making decisions on political, economic, and social matters. They had the power to enforce policies and resolve disputes within their jurisdiction.

(ii) Waziri: The Waziri served as the prime minister or chief advisor to the Emir/Sarki. They were responsible for providing counsel, guidance, and recommendations on governance matters. The Waziri played a crucial role in the decision-making process and assisted in implementing policies and managing the administrative affairs of the kingdom.

(iii) Madawaki: The Madawaki was a high-ranking officer responsible for coordinating the military forces of the kingdom. Their duties included organizing and leading the army during times of war or conflict. The Madawaki worked closely with the Emir/Sarki to ensure the security and defense of the kingdom.

(iv) Dan Iyan: The Dan Iyan was the chief courtier or chamberlain in the Hausa Fulani administration. They acted as the personal attendant to the Emir/Sarki and managed the affairs of the royal court. Their duties included organizing court proceedings, maintaining protocol, and ensuring the smooth functioning of the Emir’s household.

(v) Galadima: The Galadima was an important administrative officer responsible for overseeing the affairs of the province or district within the kingdom. Their duties included collecting taxes, maintaining public infrastructure, settling disputes, and implementing the policies and directives of the Emir/Sarki at the local level.

(vi) Dogari: The Dogari was in charge of the treasury and finance of the kingdom. They managed the collection of taxes, controlled the kingdom’s resources, and ensured proper accounting and financial management. The Dogari played a crucial role in maintaining the economic stability and prosperity of the kingdom.



(i)Clear Guidelines and Policies: Develop and communicate clear guidelines and policies that explicitly outline the expectations for non-partisanship among civil servants.These guidelines should emphasize the importance of political neutrality and provide specific examples.

(ii)Political Activity Restrictions: Implement regulations that restrict civil servants from engaging in partisan political activities while on duty or in their official capacity. This can include limitations on participating in political campaigns, endorsing candidates, or engaging in activities that may compromise their impartiality.

(iii)Recruitment and Promotion Based on Merit: Establish transparent and merit-based systems for the recruitment, selection, and promotion of civil servants. Emphasize qualifications, skills, and experience as the primary criteria for hiring and advancement, rather than political connections or affiliations.

(iv)Training and Education: Provide regular training and education programs that focus on non-partisanship and ethical conduct for civil servants. These programs should emphasize the importance of maintaining impartiality in decision-making, avoiding conflicts of interest, and upholding the principles of public service.

(v)Independent Oversight and Accountability: Establish independent oversight mechanisms to monitor and investigate allegations of partisan behavior or misconduct among civil servants. These mechanisms should have the authority to receive and investigate complaints, protect whistleblowers, and take appropriate disciplinary actions when necessary.

(vi)Promote a Culture of Non-Partisanship: Foster a culture within the civil service that values and promotes non-partisanship. This can be achieved through leadership commitment, communication campaigns, and recognition of civil servants who demonstrate a commitment to impartiality.

(vii) Transparent Performance Evaluation: Implement a fair and transparent performance evaluation system that assesses civil servants based on their competence, professionalism, and adherence to non-partisan principles.Provide regular feedback and recognition for exemplary performance.


(i)Emir/Sarkin: The Emir or Sarkin, as the highest-ranking executive officer, had several duties. They maintained law and order, ensured the administration of justice, and protected the interests of the community.

(ii)District Heads/Wakilin Sarki: District heads, known as Wakilin Sarki, were responsible for the effective governance of their respective districts. They implemented the policies and regulations set by the Emir, collected taxes, maintained security, and oversaw local government administration.

(iii)Court Officials: Court officials played significant roles in the administration of justice. The Wazirin, Galadiman, and Madaki were executive officers who advised the Emir, presided over court proceedings, and ensured the fair and equitable resolution of disputes.

(iv)Military Commanders: Military commanders, such as the Dan Masanin, held executive positions in matters of defense and security. They organized and led military forces, protected the community from external threats, and maintained internal peace.

(v)Military Commanders: Military commanders, such as the Dan Masanin, held executive positions in matters of defense and security. They organized and led military forces, protected the community from external threats, and maintained internal peace.

(vi)Advisers and Counselors: Executive officers in the Hausa/Fulani pre-colonial administration included advisers and counselors who provided expertise and guidance to the Emir. These individuals had specialized knowledge in areas such as religion, law, diplomacy, and administration.

(vii)Village/Local Chiefs: Village or local chiefs, known as Hakimi, acted as executive officers at the grassroots level. They oversaw the governance of their respective villages or communities.

One Response

  1. Joseph Deborah July 13, 2023

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