# Neco Data processing Answers 2022

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### NECO DATA PROCESSING ANSWERS ???

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DATA PROCESSING

01-10: CDCDBCBAEA

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41-50: BABDBDDDBC

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COMPLETED

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CATERING CRAFT

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COMPLETED

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BOOK KEEPING OBJ:

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11-20: BCDBAEEBBE

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Completed.!

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(4ai)

Graphic packages are programs that allow you to create graphic pictures, logos, letter headed papers, brochures, calendars, etc.

OR

Graphic Package is a collection of programs that allows for easy creation, selection and deliberate manipulation of text and images using distinctive styles on a computer for the purpose of clarity and effective communication.

(4aii)
(i) Painting packages.
(ii) Drawing packages.

(4aiii)
{CHOOSE ANY TWO}
(i) Drawing straight lines and freehand lines
(ii) Drawing regular pre-defined shapes like squares, rectangles and circles using a special tool
(iii) Entering text and changing the style and size of font
(iv) Changing the size of an object or scaling
(v) Rotating objects in either clockwise or anticlockwise by specifying the direction and angle of rotation;
(vi) Stretching objects either horizontally or vertically.

(4b)
(i) First normal form (1NF) is a property of a relation in a relational database. A relation is in first normal form if and only if no attribute domain has relations as elements. Or more informally, that no table column can have tables as values (or no repeating groups).
(ii) Second normal form:
A relation is in second normal form if it is in 1NF and every non key attribute is fully functionally dependent on the primary key. A university uses the following relation:
• The attributes IDSt and IDProf are the identification keys.
• All attributes a single valued (1NF).
(iii) Third normal form (3NF) is a database schema design approach for relational databases which uses normalizing principles to reduce the duplication of data, avoid data anomalies, ensure referential integrity, and simplify data management. It was defined in 1971 by Edgar F. Codd, an English computer scientist who invented the relational model for database management.
2022 NECO DATA PROCESSING ESSAY ANSWERS

(2a)
{CHOOSE TWO}
(i) Formal channels.
(ii) Informal channels.
(iii) Unofficial channels.

-EXPLANATION-
{CHOOSE ONE TO EXPLAIN}
(i) Formal channels
It is an official way of communicating. A formal communication channel transmits information such as the goals, policies and procedures of an organization. Messages in this type of communication channel follow a chain of command. This means information flows from a manager to his subordinates and they in turn pass on the information to the next level of staff. Some examples include company newsletters, business plans, instructions, annual reports, agreements, company-wide communications, board presentations etc.
(ii) Informal channels: It is also an official way of communicating, with somewhat relaxed norms. There may not be a need for a chain of command or hierarchy in this kind of communication. There will be immense official communication where such hierarchy or command is not needed, but they happen within the official framework. Some examples will include conversations on the work floor addressing queries of team members, lunch time conversations, many of the emails where formal command is not needed such as someone is seeking some quick information etc. Under the official environment, both formal and informal channels are used as needed.
(iii) Unofficial channels: There exists an unofficial mode of communication as well. The employees communicate outside work environment on topics not related to work. General social, sports, political and personal communication are unofficial channels. But a manager needs to be aware about the existence of such a channel and information flowing in them. Many times rumours and gossips also provide very important information which otherwise will not be available.

(2aii)
{CHOOSE ANY FOUR}
(i)coaxial cable
(ii) twisted-pair
(iii) satellite
(iv) phone lines
(v) twisted pair cables
(vi) coaxial cables

(2bi)
Word Processing refers to the act of using a computer to create, edit, save and print documents.

(2bii)
{CHOOSE ANY TWO}
(i) Microsoft word.
(ii) Corel word perfect.
(iii) Word star.
(iv) Lotus WordPro

(2biii)
(i) Save
(ii) Save As
2022 NECO DATA PROCESSING ESSAY ANSWERS

(5ai)
{CHOOSE ANY FOUR}
(i) Batch Operating System: This type of operating system does not interact with the computer directly. There is an operator which takes similar jobs having the same requirement and group them into batches. It is the responsibility of the operator to sort jobs with similar needs.
(ii) Time-Sharing Operating Systems: Each task is given some time to execute so that all the tasks work smoothly. Each user gets the time of CPU as they use a single system. These systems are also known as Multitasking Systems. The task can be from a single user or different users also. The time that each task gets to execute is called quantum.
(iii) Distributed Operating System: This type of the operating system is a recent advancement in the world of computer technology and are being widely accepted all over the world and, that too, with a great pace. Various autonomous interconnected computers communicate with each other using a shared communication network. Independent systems possess their own memory unit and CPU. These are referred to as loosely coupled systems or distributed systems.
(iv) Network Operating System : These systems run on a server and provide the capability to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions. These types of operating systems allow shared access of files, printers, security, applications, and other networking functions over a small private network.
(v) Real-Time Operating System: These types of OSs serve real-time systems. The time interval required to process and respond to inputs is very small. This time interval is called response time. Real-time systems are used when there are time requirements that are very strict like missile systems, air traffic control systems, robots, etc.

(5aii)
{CHOOSE ANY TWO}
(i) First Come First Serve(FCFS): As the name implies that the operating system jobs are executed on a first come first serve basis.
(ii) Round Robin Scheduling : this is the preemptive process scheduling. Each process is provided a fix time to execute, it is called a quantum.
(iii) Priority scheduling is a non-preemptive scheduling process and one of the most common scheduling in batch systems. · Each process is assigned a priority.

(5bi)
Data modeling is the process of creating a visual representation of either a whole information system or parts of it to communicate connections between data points and structures.

(5bii)
(i) conceptual data model.
(ii) enterprise data model.
(iii) logical data model.
(iv) physical data model.

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