Recently, attention has focused on the plight of U.S. coal workers after a difficult decade for the coal industry. Depressed global demand for coal has driven down its price, affecting profits for producers. Coal miners, in particular, have been hurt over the past decade, as employment has fallen 42 percent from its high in 2011 (Figure 1). Some have attributed coal’s misfortune to increased regulation on carbon emissions. Although regulation increases costs for coal producers, coal’s main problem is technology that has reduced the cost of competing sources of energy.

The decline in natural gas prices has not affected the ability of natural gas firms to stay in business. Several factors have helped. Key among them is that better tools and technology have allowed more-complex wells with better technology to be completed. Despite being more expensive to drill, these wells have increased productivity and efficiency, lowering the market price. These efficiency gains have allowed natural gas to remain profitable and have done little to deter production.3

It is likely that production of natural gas will at least remain steady for the near future; respondents to the Dallas Fed Energy Survey predict that natural gas prices will remain low for the rest of the year.4 During the second quarter of 2017, exploration and production firm executives in that survey reported the third straight increase in quarterly production, albeit the pace of the increase had slowed. Since 2015, U.S. natural gas production has been around 90 billion cubic feet per day, and extraction of natural gas has increased 40 percent since 2006. It appears that natural gas (as well as renewables) will continue to displace coal in energy consumption


(i) Movement of people: Transportation equally ensures the movement of passengers from one part of the country or world to another eigtger for occupational purpose or others

(ii) Access to natural resources: Through transportation , different natural resources are discovered and exploited in a country

(iii) Development of tourism: People from different parts of the country or world visit tourist centers through different means of transportation

(iv) National integration: This is because through different transport means , different region in a country are brought in constant with each other , this enhances national integration and there is interaction between different people in a country


(i) Contribution to National Income:

The lessons drawn from the economic history of many advanced countries tell us that agricultural prosperity contributed considerably in fostering economic advancement. 

(ii) Source of Food Supply:

Agriculture is the basic source of food supply of all the countries of the world—whether underdeveloped, developing or even developed. Due to heavy pressure of population in underdeveloped and developing countries and its rapid increase, the demand for food is increasing at a fast rate. If agriculture fails to meet the rising demand of food products

(iii) Pre-Requisite for Raw Material:

Agricultural advancement is necessary for improving the supply of raw materials for the agro-based industries especially in developing countries. The shortage of agricultural goods has its impact upon on industrial production and a consequent increase in the general price level. It will impede the growth of the country’s economy. The flour mills, rice shellers, oil & dal mills, bread, meat, milk products sugar factories, wineries, jute mills, textile mills and numerous other industries are based on agricultural products.

(iv) Provision of Surplus:

The progress in agricultural sector provides surplus for increasing the exports of agricultural products. In the earlier stages of development, an increase in the exports earning is more desirable because of the greater strains on the foreign exchange situation needed for the finance floods imports of basic and essential capital goods.



1.more rivers in the Africa north of the equator are navigable than those south of the equator _ the Nile, the Niger, and parts of the Congo

2.south of the equator there is generally a high inland plateau and a steep drop to a narrow costal plain

3. This is means that there arerapids and water falls when the rivers descend from the plateau

4. Also much of southern Africa is dry

5. Too shallow for the navigation in the dry season, and flowing too rapidly in floods


1. The use of crude implements.

2. Land Tenure System.

3. Lack of Capital.

4. Lack Of Research.

5. Poor Transportation.

6. Peat And Diseases.

7. Conservatism.

8. Ignorance.

9. Town Attraction.

10. Poor Storage.

11. Constant Drought.

Number 7 

U can use also explain in your terms.

1. Rapids and Cataracts.

2. Seasonality.

3. Shallowness.

4. Presence of Derbis.

5. Short Distance.

6. Specific Direction of flow.


1. *Surplus Resources:* Cities grow wherever a society, or a group within it, gains control over resources greater than are necessary for the mere sustenance of life. In ancient times these resources were acquired through subjugation of man by man. Slavery, forced labour or Taxation by the ruling or conquering class supplied the foundations of the growth of city life. In modern Limes man has won over nature and extended his power.

2. *Industrialization and Commercialization:* The urban growth has also been greatly stimulated by the new techniques of production associated with industrial revolution. The invention of machinery, the development of steam power, and the application of huge capital in industrial enterprises led to the establishment of gigantic manufacturing plants which brought about the mobility of immobile groups of workers hastening their concentration around a factory area.

3. *Development of Transport and Communication:* The development in methods of transportation and communication and the facilities which cities offer for satisfying the desire for communication also explain urban growth. Industrialization depends upon transportation so that raw material and manufactured goods can be carried in large volume. In an industrial city the means of transport and communication are essentially developed.

4. *Economic Pull of the City:* Cities provide more opportunity for personal advancement than do the rural areas. Modern business and commerce pull young men to the cities where they are paid munificent salaries. People live in cities not because they like them as place of residence but because they can get jobs there. Employment opportunities are more in the city than in the village.

5. *Educational and Recreational Facilities:* Examination Centres for competitive examinations are located in cities and the recruiting agencies are also urban located. Art galleries and museums are urban. Prominent educationists give their talks in cities. Naturally, on account of all these facilities young men and women are attracted to the cities for higher education. Recreational facilities are available in cities. Amusement theatres and operas are urban. By making appeals to the feelings and play impulses of children and adults alike they draw them to the cities.


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