2023 Neco Literature in English Questions and answers
*AFRICAN AND NON-AFRICAN PROSE.*
_Answers one question in each section_
_Each question carries 30 marks._
*Buchi Emecheta: Second Class Citizen*
(1) Discuss the character and role of Adah Ofili in the novel.
(2) “The theme of cultural shock is central in the novel.” Discuss.
*Alex Agyei-Agyiri: Unexpected Joy at Dawn*
(3) Write the theme of xenophobia in the text.
(4) Give a detailed account of the various attempts made by Mama Orojo and Nic Jackie to reconcile with each other.
*Ralph Ellison: Invisible Man*
(5) ‘To whom it may concern: keep this nigger boy running’. Discuss this statement in relation to the Narrator’s life.
(6) Discuss the theme of identity in the novel.
*Emily Brontë: Wuthering Heights*
(7) With copious examples, discuss the consequences of actions in the text.
(8) Give an account of the hostility between Heathcliff and Lockwood in the novel
Please Take Note: You are to Answer One Question In Each Section
Adah Ofili is the protagonist of Buchi Emecheta’s novel “Second Class Citizen.” She is a Nigerian woman who faces numerous challenges and struggles as she navigates through life in both Nigeria and the United Kingdom. Adah’s character is portrayed as resilient, determined, and ambitious despite the cultural and societal limitations placed upon her.
In the novel, Adah is depicted as a strong-willed and intelligent woman who desires an education and a better life for herself. However, she faces numerous obstacles that impede her progress. Adah comes from a patriarchal society where women are expected to conform to traditional gender roles and are often denied educational opportunities. Despite this, she persists in her pursuit of knowledge and manages to attend school against her father’s wishes.
When Adah moves to the UK with her husband, Francis, her role as a second-class citizen becomes even more pronounced. She faces racial discrimination, poverty, and the challenges of raising a family while trying to secure a stable job. Adah’s experiences in the UK highlight the issues faced by immigrants, particularly those from non-Western countries, as they confront cultural shock and prejudice.
Throughout the novel, Adah’s role is that of a survivor. She endures multiple hardships, including an abusive marriage, financial struggles, and the loss of her children. Adah’s determination to improve her circumstances and provide a better life for her children drives her actions. She takes on various jobs, including working as a cleaner and selling wigs, to support her family and pursue her dreams.
Adah’s character and role in the novel symbolize the experiences of many women who find themselves trapped in oppressive cultural and societal structures. She becomes a symbol of resilience and the will to overcome adversity in the face of societal expectations, racial discrimination, and gender inequality.
The theme of cultural shock is indeed central in “Second Class Citizen.” Adah’s migration from Nigeria to England exposes her to a drastically different cultural environment, and she finds herself grappling with the clash between her Nigerian heritage and the expectations and norms of British society. This clash leads to a sense of disorientation, confusion, and cultural shock.
In Nigeria, Adah was raised within a patriarchal society that emphasized traditional gender roles and limited opportunities for women. She was conditioned to accept her secondary status and conform to societal expectations. However, in England, she is exposed to a more liberal and egalitarian society where women have greater opportunities for education and career advancement. Adah experiences a cultural shock as she navigates this new environment and tries to reconcile her ingrained cultural beliefs with the newfound possibilities available to her.
Adah’s cultural shock is not limited to gender roles and expectations but extends to language, customs, and social interactions. She struggles with the English language and accents, making communication difficult at times. Adah also encounters racism and discrimination, further complicating her cultural adaptation. She faces rejection and prejudice from both Nigerians and British individuals, highlighting the challenges faced by immigrants in a society that is often resistant to change and unfamiliar cultural practices.
Through Adah’s experiences, Buchi Emecheta portrays the complexities and difficulties faced by individuals who find themselves caught between two cultures. Adah’s journey reflects the broader immigrant experience, where individuals must navigate the unfamiliar terrain of a new culture while simultaneously grappling with the preservation of their own cultural identity. The theme of cultural shock underscores the novel’s exploration of identity, assimilation, and the quest for self-actualization in the face of cultural and societal barriers.
Unexpected Joy at Dawn” by Alex Agyei-Agyiri explores the theme of xenophobia through the interactions and experiences of the characters. The story is set in a rural Ghanaian village and revolves around the tensions and conflicts that arise between the local community and the Nigerian immigrants who have settled there.
The xenophobic attitudes in the text are primarily directed towards the Nigerian immigrants, particularly Mama Orojo and her family. The villagers view them with suspicion and prejudice due to their foreign origin. The author highlights the detrimental effects of xenophobia by showcasing the challenges faced by Mama Orojo and her attempts to integrate into the community.
One instance of xenophobia is evident when Mama Orojo’s son, Nic Jackie, is denied admission to the local school due to his Nigerian background. The villagers discriminate against him solely based on his nationality, reinforcing the idea that xenophobia can limit opportunities for individuals and perpetuate exclusion.
Another example of xenophobia is the hostility Mama Orojo experiences from her neighbors. She is subjected to derogatory remarks, isolation, and a general reluctance from the villagers to accept her as part of the community. This alienation and marginalization highlight the damaging impact of xenophobia, creating a sense of otherness and deepening the divide between the two groups.
Throughout the story, both Mama Orojo and Nic Jackie make several attempts to reconcile with the villagers and bridge the gap created by xenophobia. Despite facing adversity, they persistently seek acceptance and understanding.
Mama Orojo’s attempts at reconciliation are driven by her desire to live harmoniously with the villagers. She makes an effort to engage with her neighbors, participating in communal activities and showing kindness to those around her. She tries to break down the stereotypes associated with Nigerians by demonstrating her compassion, generosity, and willingness to contribute positively to the community.
Nic Jackie, on the other hand, strives to assimilate into the local culture and win the respect of his peers. He tries to make friends with the village children, involving himself in their games and activities. Despite initial rejection, Nic Jackie remains resilient and continues his attempts to connect with the other children. He demonstrates his eagerness to learn and adapt by embracing Ghanaian traditions, which eventually helps break down some barriers.
In response to their efforts, a few individuals in the village start to recognize Mama Orojo and Nic Jackie’s genuine intentions and gradually warm up to them. These individuals become the catalysts for change, influencing others to reevaluate their prejudiced beliefs.
As the story progresses, the tensions begin to dissipate, and a gradual reconciliation takes place. The villagers start acknowledging Mama Orojo’s contributions to the community, such as her agricultural expertise and her role in mediating conflicts. They realize that their initial assumptions about her were unfounded.
Similarly, Nic Jackie’s persistence and genuine efforts to befriend the village children pay off. Some of the children begin to accept him, recognizing that cultural differences should not hinder friendship. By embracing the local traditions and learning from each other, both the Nigerian immigrants and the villagers start to find common ground and build relationships based on understanding and acceptance.
In conclusion, “Unexpected Joy at Dawn” highlights the theme of xenophobia through the experiences of Mama Orojo and Nic Jackie. The story showcases the damaging effects of xenophobia on individuals and communities while emphasizing the importance of reconciliation and acceptance. Mama Orojo and Nic Jackie’s persistent attempts to bridge the divide ultimately lead to a gradual reconciliation between the Nigerian immigrants and the villagers, challenging the xenophobic attitudes prevalent in the community.
The statement “To whom it may concern: keep this nigger boy running” reflects the dehumanization and subjugation that the narrator experiences throughout his life in the novel Invisible Man. The narrator is constantly being used and manipulated by those in power who see him only as a means to their own ends. From the very beginning of the novel the narrator is forced to fight in a brutal and degrading battle royal where he is pitted against other black boys and made to entertain a white audience. This event sets the tone for the rest of the novel as the narrator is constantly being “kept running” by others who use him for their own purposes.
The narrator is also subjected to the ideologies and expectations of both the white and black communities. He initially believes that if he adheres to the ideologies and expectations of the white society he will be able to succeed and gain recognition. However he soon realizes that no matter how hard he tries he will never be seen as an individual with his own agency. Instead he is seen as a representative of his race and is expected to conform to certain stereotypes and roles.
Furthermore the narrator’s experiences with the Brotherhood further emphasize his status as a “nigger boy” who is kept running. The Brotherhood uses him as a symbol to gain support and manipulate the masses using his invisibility to their advantage. They exploit his passion and desire for change but ultimately discard him once he no longer serves their purpose.
Overall the statement “To whom it may concern: keep this nigger boy running” highlights the dehumanization and exploitation that the narrator faces throughout the novel. He is used and manipulated by those in power stripped of his individuality and forced to conform to the expectations of society.
In Ralph Ellison’s novel “Invisible Man,” the theme of identity is central to the story. The protagonist, an unnamed African American man, embarks on a journey of self-discovery and wrestles with the complexities of his racial, social, and individual identity throughout the narrative. Ellison explores various aspects of identity, including racial identity, personal identity, and the struggle for self-definition in a racially divided society.
One of the primary concerns of the novel is the African American experience in a racially oppressive society. The protagonist grapples with the notion of invisibility, feeling marginalized and unseen by the dominant white culture. His invisibility is not merely physical but also symbolic, as it reflects the dehumanization and erasure of African Americans in society. This struggle for visibility becomes intertwined with his quest for identity.
The protagonist navigates through different spaces, encountering various social and political groups that attempt to define his identity for him. He confronts stereotypes, prejudice, and racial expectations that limit his self-expression and restrict his ability to forge his own identity. From the college he attends to the Brotherhood, a political organization, each group tries to mold him into a specific role based on their own agendas, highlighting the external pressures and expectations placed upon him.
Moreover, the protagonist’s personal journey of self-discovery is marked by a series of transformative experiences and encounters. He undergoes a process of shedding preconceived notions and societal expectations, gradually realizing the complexities of his own individuality. He moves from a state of naivety and idealism to a more nuanced understanding of his place in the world.
Ellison also explores the theme of identity through the motif of masks and disguises. The protagonist wears figurative masks to navigate through different social settings, concealing his true self in order to fit in or survive. However, these masks prevent him from fully embracing his own identity, reinforcing the idea that society forces marginalized individuals to conform and deny their authentic selves.
Ultimately, the novel suggests that true identity cannot be imposed or defined by external forces. The protagonist’s journey is a quest to define himself on his own terms, free from the constraints of societal expectations. Through his experiences, he comes to understand that true identity is a complex and multifaceted construct that cannot be reduced to simplistic categories or stereotypes.
In conclusion, the theme of identity in “Invisible Man” is a rich and intricate exploration of the African American experience in a racially divided society. Ralph Ellison delves into the struggles of the protagonist as he grapples with racial invisibility, societal pressures, and the quest for self-definition. The novel emphasizes the importance of recognizing and embracing one’s own authentic identity, beyond the limitations imposed by others, in order to achieve true selfhood.
In Emily Brontë’s novel “Wuthering Heights,” the consequences of actions play a significant role in shaping the lives of the characters and driving the narrative forward. The novel explores themes of love, revenge, and the destructive nature of unchecked passion. Through various examples, Brontë portrays how the consequences of characters’ actions can have far-reaching and devastating effects.
One example of the consequences of actions is the relationship between Catherine Earnshaw and Heathcliff. Catherine’s decision to marry Edgar Linton instead of Heathcliff leads to a series of tragic events. Heathcliff, consumed by his love for Catherine, becomes vengeful and bitter, seeking revenge on those he believes have wronged him. This ultimately leads to a cycle of violence and destruction that affects not only the main characters but also the next generation.
Another instance is Hindley Earnshaw’s mistreatment of Heathcliff. Hindley’s jealousy and resentment towards Heathcliff cause him to mistreat and degrade him, which fuels Heathcliff’s desire for revenge. As a result, Heathcliff manipulates and torments Hindley’s son, Hareton Earnshaw, perpetuating the cycle of abuse across generations. The consequences of Hindley’s actions have lasting impacts on both himself and those around him.
Additionally, the actions of Isabella Linton, Edgar’s sister, have significant consequences. Isabella, driven by infatuation and a desire to escape her unhappy marriage to Heathcliff, elopes with him. However, she soon realizes the harsh reality of his cruel and vindictive nature. Her actions lead to her own misery as she becomes trapped in an abusive relationship. She bears Heathcliff’s child, Linton, who becomes a pawn in Heathcliff’s revenge scheme, ultimately leading to Linton’s untimely death.
Overall, “Wuthering Heights” illustrates how the consequences of characters’ actions can reverberate throughout the novel, affecting not only the individuals involved but also future generations. Love, passion, and revenge drive the characters to make choices that result in devastating outcomes, showcasing the destructive power of unchecked emotions and the profound impact of actions on the lives of those involved.
The hostility between Heathcliff and Lockwood in Emily Brontë’s novel Wuthering Heights is evident from their first encounter and continues to escalate throughout the story. This conflict stems from their contrasting personalities backgrounds and experiences.
Lockwood a gentleman from London is introduced as an outsider when he rents Thrushcross Grange the neighboring estate of Wuthering Heights. Inquisitive and curious he is intrigued by the mysterious atmosphere of the moors and the unconventional nature of the inhabitants of Wuthering Heights. However his initial attempts to establish a friendly relationship with Heathcliff are met with indifference and even rudeness.
Heathcliff on the other hand is a brooding and enigmatic character. As an orphan brought to Wuthering Heights by Mr. Earnshaw he is often regarded as an outsider as well. However unlike Lockwood Heathcliff is deeply connected to the estate and its turbulent past. He resents Lockwood’s intrusion into his solitude and considers him an unwelcome guest.
Their hostility intensifies when Lockwood visits Wuthering Heights and intrudes upon a confrontation between Heathcliff and Catherine Earnshaw the love of Heathcliff’s life. Lockwood witnesses the emotional turmoil between the two and becomes increasingly involved in their complicated relationship. This intrusion exacerbates Heathcliff’s anger towards Lockwood as he feels his privacy has been violated.
Furthermore the stark differences in their social statuses and upbringings contribute to the animosity between them. Lockwood represents the upper-class gentry while Heathcliff is seen as a social outcast. These class distinctions exacerbate the tension between them and accentuate the power dynamics at play.
Ultimately Heathcliff’s deeply rooted resentment towards Lockwood stems from a combination of his own isolated upbringing his intense love for Catherine and his general disdain for anyone he perceives as an intruder or threat to his control over Wuthering Heights. This hostility between Heathcliff and Lockwood adds another layer of complexity to the narrative and serves to underline the themes of isolation obsession and revenge that permeate the novel.
*NECO LITERATURE (NUMBER 7)*
In Emily Brontë’s novel “Wuthering Heights,” the consequences of characters’ actions are central to the development of the plot and the exploration of themes. The story presents a web of interconnected actions and their repercussions, demonstrating how choices and behaviors have far-reaching effects on individuals and generations. Here are several examples that illustrate the consequences of actions in the text:
(i) Heathcliff’s Revenge:
Heathcliff’s actions are driven by his desire for revenge against those he believes have wronged him, primarily the Earnshaw and Linton families. His cruel treatment of others, particularly Hindley Earnshaw and Edgar Linton, leads to a cycle of vengeance and suffering. As a result, Heathcliff loses his humanity, becomes consumed by bitterness, and inflicts pain on those around him. The consequences of his actions extend beyond his own life, impacting future generations and perpetuating a cycle of misery.
(ii) Hindley Earnshaw’s Abusive Behavior:
Hindley’s actions, fueled by jealousy and resentment toward Heathcliff, have severe consequences for both himself and others. His mistreatment of Heathcliff as a child and later as a master of Wuthering Heights contributes to Heathcliff’s desire for revenge. Furthermore, Hindley’s descent into alcoholism and neglect of his responsibilities lead to the deterioration of his own health and the decline of the Earnshaw family’s fortunes.
(iii) Catherine Earnshaw’s Decision to Marry Edgar Linton:
Catherine’s choice to marry Edgar Linton, motivated by social ambition and the desire for a comfortable life, has significant consequences. Her decision separates her from Heathcliff, her true love, and sets in motion a series of events that cause immense suffering for all involved. Catherine’s marriage to Edgar ultimately leads to her own unhappiness, as she cannot fully suppress her intense connection to Heathcliff. Additionally, it fuels Heathcliff’s desire for revenge, further intensifying the cycle of pain and destruction.
(iv) Isabella Linton’s Infatuation with Heathcliff:
Isabella’s infatuation with Heathcliff has devastating consequences for her. Ignoring warnings about his cruel nature, she elopes with him, hoping to escape her unhappy life at Thrushcross Grange. However, once married, she experiences Heathcliff’s brutality firsthand. Isabella becomes isolated and trapped in an abusive relationship, forced to endure physical and emotional torment. Her actions result in her own misery and serve as a cautionary tale about the repercussions of blind infatuation.
(v) Edgar Linton’s Attempt to Protect His Family:
Edgar’s actions are driven by his desire to protect his family, particularly his daughter, Cathy. He tries to shield her from the negative influence of Heathcliff and the destructive environment of Wuthering Heights. However, his attempts to maintain order and protect his loved ones inadvertently contribute to the continuation of the cycle of vengeance. His refusal to confront Heathcliff directly and his reliance on social conventions rather than addressing the underlying issues ultimately lead to the tragic consequences faced by his family.
In Emily Brontë’s masterpiece, “Wuthering Heights,” the narrative intricately weaves together actions and their consequences, delving into the profound impact of choices and behaviors on individuals and subsequent generations. The novel vividly portrays how characters’ actions unleash a chain of events with far-reaching implications. Let’s explore various instances that exemplify the consequences of actions within the text:
(i) Heathcliff’s Quest for Retribution:
Heathcliff’s actions are driven by an insatiable thirst for revenge against those he perceives as having wronged him, most notably the Earnshaw and Linton families. Through his merciless treatment of individuals such as Hindley Earnshaw and Edgar Linton, he initiates a vicious cycle of vengeance and suffering. Consequently, Heathcliff forfeits his own humanity, consumed by a deep-seated bitterness that inflicts pain upon all those within his orbit. The consequences of his actions extend beyond his lifetime, permeating future generations and perpetuating a legacy of anguish.
(ii) Hindley Earnshaw’s Cruelty:
Hindley’s actions, stemming from jealousy and resentment towards Heathcliff, bear grave consequences for himself and others. His mistreatment of Heathcliff during their formative years and later as the master of Wuthering Heights fuels Heathcliff’s thirst for retaliation. Furthermore, Hindley’s descent into alcoholism and dereliction of familial duties results in the erosion of his own well-being and the gradual decline of the Earnshaw family’s prosperity.
(iii) Catherine Earnshaw’s Decision to Wed Edgar Linton:
Catherine’s choice to marry Edgar Linton, motivated by social aspirations and the yearning for a comfortable life, yields profound consequences. Her decision estranges her from Heathcliff, her soulmate, setting in motion a series of tragic events that engender immense suffering for all involved. Catherine’s marriage to Edgar ultimately leads to her own dissatisfaction as she fails to suppress her profound connection to Heathcliff. Moreover, it fuels Heathcliff’s desire for vengeance, perpetuating the cycle of pain and devastation.
(iv) Isabella Linton’s Infatuation with Heathcliff:
Isabella’s infatuation with Heathcliff elicits dire consequences for her well-being. Ignoring cautionary warnings about his cruel nature, she elopes with him, seeking an escape from her discontented life at Thrushcross Grange. Yet, once married, she becomes a victim of Heathcliff’s brutality. Isabella finds herself isolated and ensnared in an abusive relationship, subjected to physical and emotional torment. Her actions result in her own misery, serving as a cautionary tale about the repercussions of blind infatuation.
(v) Edgar Linton’s Attempts to Safeguard His Family:
Edgar’s actions are fueled by his desire to protect his family, particularly his daughter, Cathy. He endeavors to shield her from the pernicious influence of Heathcliff and the malevolent atmosphere of Wuthering Heights. However, his efforts to uphold order and ensure the well-being of his loved ones inadvertently contribute to the perpetuation of the revenge cycle. Edgar’s reluctance to confront Heathcliff directly and his reliance on societal conventions, rather than addressing the underlying issues, ultimately culminate in tragic consequences for his family.
*NECO LITERATURE (NUMBER 8)*
The relationship between Heathcliff and Lockwood is marked by a significant level of hostility. Lockwood, a gentleman from the city, rents Thrushcross Grange from Heathcliff, the mysterious and volatile owner of Wuthering Heights.
The initial encounter between Lockwood and Heathcliff sets the stage for their tense relationship. Lockwood, eager to introduce himself to his landlord, ventures to Wuthering Heights but is met with a cold reception. Heathcliff, wary of outsiders and possessing a surly disposition, responds to Lockwood’s attempts at conversation with hostility and dismissiveness.
As the story unfolds, Lockwood’s fascination with the enigmatic atmosphere of Wuthering Heights grows, but his attempts to engage with Heathcliff are met with resistance. Heathcliff, harboring deep-seated resentments and bitterness, holds no interest in establishing rapport with Lockwood, viewing him as an unwelcome intruder into his isolated world.
Their interactions are characterized by tension and clashes of temperament. Lockwood, initially curious about Heathcliff and the history of Wuthering Heights, becomes frustrated with his landlord’s hostility. Despite Lockwood’s attempts to bridge the gap, Heathcliff maintains a distant and antagonistic attitude, further exacerbating their strained relationship.
The hostility between Heathcliff and Lockwood serves to highlight the stark contrast between their personalities and backgrounds. Lockwood represents the refined and conventional world, while Heathcliff embodies the wild and untamed nature of Wuthering Heights. The clash between their differing social statuses and perspectives fuels the animosity between them.
Throughout the novel, their hostile dynamic underscores the larger themes of social class, isolation, and the destructive power of unresolved anger. Lockwood’s attempts to understand the enigma of Heathcliff and Wuthering Heights are met with a wall of hostility, leaving him feeling like an outsider unable to penetrate the depths of Heathcliff’s troubled soul.
The hostility between Heathcliff and Lockwood in “Wuthering Heights” stems from their conflicting personalities, backgrounds, and interactions. Lockwood’s curiosity and desire for connection are met with disdain and aloofness from the brooding Heathcliff. Their strained relationship serves as a reflection of the tumultuous and volatile world of Wuthering Heights, adding to the overall atmosphere of the novel and emphasizing the themes of social divide and emotional turmoil.
The hostility between Heathcliff and Lockwood in Emily Brontë’s masterpiece “Wuthering Heights” spreads from their initial encounter and intensifies throughout the unfolding tale. This conflict emerges from their contrasting temperaments, backgrounds, and life experiences.
Lockwood, a sophisticated gentleman hailing from London, finds himself an outsider when he leases Thrushcross Grange, the neighboring estate to Wuthering Heights. Curious and inquisitive, he is captivated by the enigmatic ambiance of the moors and the unconventional nature of the inhabitants of Wuthering Heights. However, his initial attempts to forge a friendly rapport with Heathcliff are met with indifference and occasional rudeness.
Heathcliff, on the other hand, embodies a brooding and mysterious persona. As an orphan brought to Wuthering Heights by Mr. Earnshaw, he too is often viewed as an outsider. However, unlike Lockwood, Heathcliff shares an intense connection with the estate and its tumultuous history. He resents Lockwood’s intrusion into his solitude, regarding him as an unwelcome interloper.
Their enmity intensifies when Lockwood unwittingly becomes entangled in a confrontation between Heathcliff and Catherine Earnshaw, the object of Heathcliff’s deep affection. Lockwood bears witness to the emotional turmoil between the two and is increasingly drawn into their intricate relationship. This intrusion further fuels Heathcliff’s ire towards Lockwood, as he perceives it as a violation of his privacy.
Additionally, the stark disparities in their social standings and upbringings contribute to the animosity between them. Lockwood personifies the upper-class gentry, while Heathcliff is perceived as a social outcast. These class distinctions exacerbate the tension between the two, amplifying the power dynamics at play.
Heathcliff’s profound resentment towards Lockwood stems from a combination of his isolated upbringing, his profound love for Catherine, and his general disdain for anyone he perceives as an intruder or threat to his dominion over Wuthering Heights. The hostilities between Heathcliff and Lockwood imbue the narrative with a heightened sense of complexity, accentuating the prevailing themes of isolation, obsession, and the relentless pursuit of revenge that permeate the novel.
*NECO LITERATURE (NUMBER 4)*
Mama Orojo and Nii Tackie, two siblings separated by circumstances, make several heartfelt attempts to reconcile with each other throughout the narrative. Their desire to reconnect and mend their strained relationship serves as a driving force in the story, showcasing the power of forgiveness, resilience, and the enduring bond of family.
Initially, Mama Orojo and Nii Tackie are separated at a young age due to a tragic event. As they grow older, both siblings harbor a deep longing to reunite and find solace in each other’s presence. Mama Orojo, aware of her brother’s existence, actively searches for him, driven by the memories and love they shared as children. She seeks information, reaches out to mutual acquaintances, and even embarks on journeys to different locations in hopes of discovering Nii Tackie’s whereabouts.
On the other hand, Nii Tackie, unaware of his sister’s efforts, also experiences a sense of longing and loss. He carries the weight of their separation, feeling an inexplicable void in his life. He nurtures a flickering hope of reuniting with Mama Orojo, although the passage of time and life’s challenges make it increasingly difficult.
As the narrative unfolds, circumstances align, and fate intervenes, bringing Mama Orojo and Nii Tackie closer to a long-awaited reunion. Through chance encounters, the assistance of kind-hearted individuals, and a series of fortuitous events, the siblings’ paths gradually converge. The author intricately weaves their individual journeys, highlighting the perseverance, determination, and unwavering love that propel Mama Orojo and Nii Tackie towards each other.
When Mama Orojo finally locates Nii Tackie, their reunion is a powerful and emotionally charged moment. The years of longing and separation dissolve as they embrace, their hearts filled with joy, forgiveness, and a shared understanding of the past. The siblings embark on a journey of reconciliation, seeking to heal the wounds inflicted by their separation and rebuild the bond that was once shattered.
Throughout their reconciliation process, Mama Orojo and Nii Tackie engage in heartfelt conversations, sharing their experiences, regrets, and dreams. They confront the pain and misunderstandings of the past, allowing empathy and forgiveness to pave the way for healing. Their determination to rebuild their relationship serves as an inspiration, illustrating the profound impact of forgiveness, resilience, and the enduring power of familial love.
Nii Tackie and Mama Orojo, blood relatives from Nigeria, find themselves separated by two deportations. The first deportation occurred when Mama Orojo was still young and living with her parents in Ghana. The Ghanaian government implemented an Alien Compliance Order in 1969, forcing aliens without resident permits to regularize their stay or leave the country. Mama Orojo’s great grandparents had migrated to Ghana years ago.
Mama Orojo, aware of her brother’s existence, takes the initiative to search for Nii Tackie. She actively seeks information from family members, acquaintances, and anyone who may have knowledge of his whereabouts. Driven by her memories of their childhood and the deep bond they shared, Mama Orojo embarks on a relentless pursuit, leaving no stone unturned in her quest to find her long-lost brother. Her determination fuels her resilience, as she travels to different locations in her search for Nii Tackie.
On the other hand, Nii Tackie, though unaware of Mama Orojo’s efforts, carries the weight of their separation within him. He experiences a sense of longing and loss, clinging to the hope of reuniting with his sister. Despite the challenges life throws at him, Nii Tackie holds onto the belief that they will one day reconnect.
Throughout the narrative, circumstances align, and fate plays its part in bringing Mama Orojo and Nii Tackie closer to their long-awaited reunion. Chance encounters, the assistance of kind-hearted individuals, and a series of fortunate events gradually bring their paths together. These providential occurrences underscore the depth of their connection and the significance of their bond.
Finally, the pivotal moment arrives when Mama Orojo and Nii Tackie are face to face. Their reunion is marked by overwhelming emotions as years of separation dissolve in an embrace filled with joy and forgiveness. The shared understanding of their past experiences allows them to confront the pain and misunderstandings that kept them apart. With empathy and a willingness to heal, they embark on a journey of reconciliation, determined to rebuild the bond that was shattered by their separation.
During their journey of reconciliation, Mama Orojo and Nii Tackie delve into deep and heartfelt dialogues, exchanging tales of their personal journeys, reflections on past experiences, and aspirations for the future. Together, they confront the hurdles and hardships that once divided them, embracing the transformative powers of forgiveness and empathy as they navigate the path to healing. Their mutual dedication to rebuilding their bond stands as a testament to the unwavering strength of familial love and the profound impact of forgiveness in shaping their lives anew.
*NECO LITERATURE (NUMBER 2)*
The theme of cultural shock in Buchi Emecheta’s novel “Second Class Citizen” serves as a central thread that weaves throughout the narrative, illuminating the challenges faced by the protagonist, Adah Ofili, as she navigates between her Nigerian heritage and the cultural realities of her new life in Britain. The novel explores the profound impact of cultural dissonance on individual identity, relationships, and the struggle for self-acceptance.
Adah experiences a profound cultural shock when she moves to Britain with her husband, Francis. The stark contrast between the cultural values, customs, and expectations of Nigeria and those of her adopted country significantly shape her experiences and contribute to her personal growth and adversity. Adah finds herself torn between the traditional expectations placed upon her as a Nigerian woman and the opportunities and freedoms she encounters in her new environment.
One aspect of cultural shock that Adah faces is the clash between traditional gender roles in Nigeria and the more progressive attitudes in Britain. In her homeland, women are expected to conform to submissive roles, sacrificing their ambitions for the sake of family and community. Adah’s aspirations for education and independence challenge these norms and often lead to conflict and alienation from her family. In Britain, she is exposed to different gender dynamics, where women have more agency and opportunities for self-expression. This stark contrast highlights the complexities and challenges she faces as she strives to reconcile her Nigerian heritage with her evolving identity in a new cultural context.
Additionally, the theme of cultural shock is intertwined with issues of race and identity. Adah encounters racism and discrimination in Britain, which further complicates her sense of self. The prejudice she experiences shapes her perceptions and interactions with others, ultimately influencing her determination to succeed despite the hurdles placed before her. The novel portrays the psychological and emotional toll of cultural shock, as Adah grapples with questions of belonging, self-worth, and the preservation of her cultural identity.
Through Adah’s journey, “Second Class Citizen” explores the transformative power of cultural shock. While initially disorienting and challenging, Adah’s experiences ultimately lead to self-discovery, resilience, and a stronger sense of identity. She learns to navigate between her Nigerian roots and the British context, carving out her own path and challenging societal expectations. Adah’s story invites readers to reflect on the complexities of cultural adaptation and the ways in which individual identity is shaped by encounters with new environments.
The role of tradition and modernity cannot be downplayed in this novel as it exhibits a cultural shock as it serves as the ultimate conflict that makes the two key characters, Adah and Francis to be at loggerhead with each other before they finally part ways. Francis, his family, and Adah’s parents so much believe in tradition and superstition, for they want things to be done as laid down by their ancestors.
In Buchi Emecheta’s novel “Second Class Citizen,” the theme of cultural shock plays a central role, penetrating every aspect of the narrative and offering a profound exploration of the protagonist’s struggle to navigate the clash between her Nigerian heritage and the realities of her new life in Britain. The novel vividly portrays the transformative and far-reaching impact of cultural dislocation on individual identity, relationships, and the quest for self-acceptance.
The theme of cultural shock is central in “Second Class Citizen” as it permeates the experiences and challenges faced by the protagonist, Adah Ofili, throughout the novel. When Adah moves to Britain with her husband, Francis, she encounters a stark contrast between the cultural values, customs, and societal expectations of Nigeria and those of her adopted country. This dissonance becomes a defining element of her journey, shaping her experiences and exposing her to a multitude of personal and societal conflicts.
Adah grapples with the clash between traditional gender roles in Nigeria and the more progressive attitudes she encounters in Britain. In Nigeria, women are expected to conform to submissive roles, prioritizing family and community over personal aspirations. Adah’s pursuit of education and independence challenges these norms, leading to tension and estrangement from her family. In Britain, she confronts a different set of gender dynamics, where women have more agency and opportunities for self-expression. This dichotomy highlights the complexities Adah faces as she strives to reconcile her Nigerian heritage with her evolving sense of self in an unfamiliar cultural context.
Her story serves as a reflection of the challenges faced by individuals caught between different cultural worlds and invites readers to contemplate the complexities of cultural adaptation, the negotiation of identity, and the universal longing for self-acceptance.
*NECO LITERATURE (NUMBER 6)*
The theme of identity permeates the narrative, exploring the complex and multifaceted nature of individual and collective identity. Throughout the story, the protagonist grapples with questions of self-perception, societal expectations, and the struggle to establish a sense of self in a world that often renders him invisible.
The protagonist’s journey begins with a quest for self-discovery and the desire to define himself on his own terms. However, he quickly realizes that his identity is shaped by external forces, such as societal expectations and racial stereotypes. As an African American in a racially divided society, he is subjected to both overt and subtle forms of racism, which contribute to his invisibility and erode his sense of self.
The concept of invisibility symbolizes the protagonist’s struggle to be seen and recognized as an individual with agency and autonomy. He is rendered invisible by the dominant white society that fails to acknowledge his humanity beyond racial stereotypes. Furthermore, he is rendered invisible by the black community, which often views him through the lens of collective identity rather than as an individual with unique experiences and aspirations.
As the narrative unfolds, the protagonist grapples with multiple identities that are imposed upon him. From his early experiences at college, where he is manipulated by white figures in power, to his involvement with the Brotherhood, where he becomes a faceless member serving their hidden agenda, his identity is constantly shaped and reshaped by external influences. The novel underscores the dangers of conforming to prescribed identities and the importance of reclaiming one’s individuality.
Throughout his journey, the protagonist confronts the complexities of identity, questioning his role as a black man in a racially divided society. He navigates the tensions between assimilation and cultural heritage, struggling to reconcile the expectations placed upon him by society with his own desires and aspirations. Ultimately, he seeks to define himself outside the confines of societal expectations and stereotypes.
The theme of identity in “Invisible Man” is intricately connected to larger social and cultural issues. The novel explores the intersections of race, class, and power dynamics that shape individual and collective identities. It challenges societal norms and invites readers to question the impact of societal expectations on personal identity and self-perception.
In the novel, the narrator is especially searching for his identity in the race dominated society, unsure about where to turn to define himself. As the narrator states at the beginning of the novel, “All my life I had been looking for something, and everywhere I turned something tries to tell what it was”. It is undoubtedly clear that the narrator’s blackness comprises a large part of his identity.
The theme of identity in “Invisible Man” explores the notion of self-discovery and self-acceptance. As the protagonist embarks on his journey, he undergoes a process of unmasking societal illusions and confronting his own preconceived notions of identity. He seeks to redefine himself outside of the confines of societal expectations and to reclaim his individuality.
However, invisibility doesn’t come from racism alone. For example, when the narrator decides to work with Liberty Paint Plant, he becomes excited with the hope of equality or finding a natural ground with the white. He feels that he has finally found his identify, unknown to him that it is the beginning of his endless search for one. It is search for identity that makes him stage Tod Clifton’s funeral ceremony without-consulting the Brotherhood. The Brotherhood also provides systematic way of thinking about the world that claims to be solution to racism and inequality.
The narrator at first, embraces the Brotherhood, thinking it would help him ascertain his missing identity as a member of the black race. The narrator at first embraces this ideology of the Brotherhood and structures his identity around it. However, he comes to discover that the Brotherhood is perfectly willing to sacrifice him for their own selfish interest, and it is not what it truly represents. Thus, this novel can be read not only as a story, but a black man’s struggle to find his identity or grow up and learn to be himself, against the backdrop of social pressure or racism.
The theme of identity in “Invisible Man” delves into the complex struggle of the protagonist to establish his sense of self in a society that renders him invisible. The novel explores the challenges and complexities of individual and collective identity, highlighting the influence of societal expectations, racial stereotypes, and the quest for personal autonomy. By delving into these themes, Ralph Ellison invites readers to reflect on their own notions of identity and the impact of societal forces on the construction of self.
*NECO LITERATURE (NUMBER 5)*
The statement “To whom it may concern: keep this nigger boy running” encapsulates a central theme that resonates throughout the life of the Narrator. This statement serves as a reminder of the dehumanizing and oppressive forces that shape the Narrator’s existence, forcing him to constantly strive for survival and maintain an elusive sense of identity.
From the beginning of the novel, the Narrator finds himself caught in a web of expectations and prejudices that reduce him to a mere object or stereotype. He is seen as a “nigger boy” by those in positions of power, subjected to their whims and desires. The statement encapsulates the systemic racism and social hierarchy that permeate the world in which the Narrator lives, constantly reminding him of his marginalized position and limited agency.
Throughout the narrative, the Narrator’s life is marked by a series of encounters and experiences that reinforce the statement’s meaning. From his time at the college, where he is manipulated by the white trustees and treated as a pawn, to his involvement with the Brotherhood, where he becomes a faceless member serving the organization’s hidden agenda, the Narrator is consistently pushed to keep moving, serving the interests of others without consideration for his own desires or individuality.
The theme of running symbolizes the Narrator’s perpetual state of motion, both physically and metaphorically. He is constantly on the move, navigating a hostile and ever-shifting world that denies him a stable sense of self. He is expected to conform, adapt, and perform according to the expectations and desires of those in power. The pressure to keep running, to keep pushing forward despite the odds, becomes a defining characteristic of his life.
Moreover, the statement underscores the ways in which the Narrator’s identity is defined by others. His existence is shaped by the perspectives, prejudices, and stereotypes imposed upon him by a society that fails to see his humanity. It is a constant reminder that he is seen as a “nigger boy” first and foremost, stripped of his individuality, agency, and the opportunity to define himself on his own terms.
The phrase “To whom it may concern: perpetually propel this individual” encapsulates the pervasive dehumanization and subjugation experienced by the protagonist in Ralph Ellison’s novel “Invisible Man.” Throughout the narrative, the protagonist finds himself incessantly manipulated and utilized by those in positions of power, who view him merely as a means to their own ends. From the outset of the novel, the protagonist is thrust into a degrading and brutal battle royal, where he is compelled to entertain a white audience and compete against fellow black individuals. This traumatic event sets the tone for his ongoing struggle, as he is consistently pushed to keep moving by those who exploit him.
Additionally, the protagonist is subject to the expectations and ideologies of both white and black communities. Initially believing that adhering to the norms and ideals of the dominant white society would enable him to succeed and be acknowledged as an individual, he soon realizes the futility of his efforts. He becomes acutely aware that he is perceived solely as a representative of his race, expected to conform to predetermined stereotypes and fulfill specific roles.
Moreover, the protagonist’s affiliation with the Brotherhood further accentuates his status as a perpetual pawn. The organization utilizes his invisibility to their advantage, employing him as a symbol to manipulate and gain support from the masses. Exploiting his passion for societal change, they discard him when he no longer serves their purpose.
In essence, the phrase “To whom it may concern: perpetually propel this individual” underscores the pervasive dehumanization and exploitation endured by the protagonist in “Invisible Man.” He is incessantly used and manipulated, stripped of his agency and compelled to conform to societal expectations. His journey serves as a poignant exploration of the struggle for autonomy and recognition in a world that perpetually seeks to control and define him.
*NECO LITERATURE (NUMBER 3)*
In the novel, citizens and governments of both Nigeria and Ghana are not comfortable with other country’s nationals in their country. The Bank Manager of Expense Bank does not hide his dislike for Nii Tackie whom he sees as a Nigerian living off the wealth of Ghana. He goes to the extent of saying that if given the power, he would gladly sack all the “aliens” working in the bank.
The Bank Manager’s wish though not fulfilled is already in motion outside the bank. Ghanaians are already hitting out on Nigerians living in Ghana. This is further confirmed by newspaper reports as related by an immigration officer during the screening of Mama Orojo’s luggage in the airport on her way to Accra and also by Nii Tackie’s sudden consciousness of his tribal marks.
In Nigeria, there is expulsion of aliens from the country; mostly Ghanaians. The Ghanaians are clearly doing well in Nigeria before the alienation policy is introduced. They work in banks, schools, and construction companies. But immediately the new immigration policy is introduced, their Nigerian employers subtly collect their residents’ permits and destroy them.
Idem’s expression in Chapter 8 (Part 1) of the text, “Omo Ghana no go go oo”, underscores the attitude of many Nigerian citizens to Ghanaians; whether legal or illegal immigrants.
Nii and Aaron encounter a severe bout of xenophobic hostility upon reaching the Nigerian border in Lagos. Despite Nii’s relentless efforts to thrive in Ghana, he ultimately decides to embark on a fresh start in Nigeria, driven by the desire to reunite with his long-lost sister and rebuild his life. Unfortunately, upon his arrival, he is met with the Nigerian government’s implementation of a policy aimed at expelling foreigners from the country—a retaliatory response to previous xenophobic attacks.
Despite Nii’s Nigerian heritage, he finds himself engulfed in despair and anguish, unable to communicate in any local language. Even his tribal marks and family name fail to shield him from the clutches of discrimination. Nii soon realizes that acquiring citizenship requires much more than superficial markers such as tribal affiliations or family lineage. Consequently, he is apprehended by an officer and forced into labor on a cassava farm as a means to regain his freedom within his own homeland.
The journey of fruitless searching plunges Nii into a state of emotional turmoil, until fate intervenes, finally reuniting him with Mama Orojo, his long-lost sister, in Nigeria. The reunion brings a glimmer of hope amid the hardships and tribulations Nii has endured, offering a semblance of solace and connection in a foreign land.
In Alex Agyei-Agyiri’s novel “Unexpected Joy at Dawn,” the theme of xenophobia is a prominent thread that weaves throughout the narrative, shedding light on the destructive nature of prejudice and discrimination. The story unfolds in a small rural community in Ghana, where the arrival of a group of strangers from various African countries exposes the deeply ingrained xenophobia within the local residents.
According to Mama, the then opposition party accused aliens, that is, non-citizens of ruining the country, or the government of that time has made a mess of its management of the affairs of the Ghanaian economy and blamed their failure to do things right on us aliens as scapegoats. Life becomes quite unbearable to learn that Mama Orojo and her family are unwanted in a country they have come to regard to be their home. The journey to Nigeria is not without difficulties, as they stopped to bury someone each time the track stopped. She buried her father and mother on her way. Not heard about her grandma who refused to come with them.
As a result, the economic situation in Ghana deteriorates, forcing many skilled workers and professionals to leave the country. The nation faces a devastating drought, leading to widespread crop failure and a decline in primary product exports. The country’s burdens multiply, exacerbating the economic gloom. Even Nii Tackie, working as an assistant manager in a bank, is compelled to take up part-time teaching to make ends meet during this difficult period.
The authorities implement panic-driven economic measures, including the withdrawal of the fifty cedis note, the highest denomination of the national currency. This decision leaves the people impoverished and disheartened. The economic downturn also fuels tension and animosity between the native population and immigrants, resulting in xenophobic attacks as an outlet for expressing their dissatisfaction and disapproval of foreigners. Both natives and non-natives become victims of this escalating hostility.
Aaron Tsuru, the owner of Ant Hill brick, is among those affected by the adverse consequences of xenophobia. Unable to secure a loan from the bank due to detrimental government policies, he is compelled to abandon his career and seek better opportunities elsewhere. Similarly, Nii Tackie, despite his aspirations, decides to leave his dream career behind and journey to Nigeria in search of greener pastures.
Another distressing consequence of xenophobia is the unjust brutality perpetrated by security personnel, who exploit the situation to mistreat both citizens and non-citizens. In a chilling incident at the market, an armed soldier chases a ten-year-old girl for selling goods above the government-imposed price controls.
All in all, the novel portrays the worsening economic conditions in Ghana, forcing professionals and skilled workers to emigrate. The country grapples with a devastating drought, crop failures, and economic hardships. The withdrawal of the highest denomination currency triggers tensions between natives and immigrants, resulting in xenophobic attacks. Individuals like Aaron Tsuru and Nii Tackie are compelled to abandon their career aspirations and seek opportunities elsewhere. The incidents of brutality by security personnel further highlight the grim consequences of xenophobia on both citizens and non-citizens alike.
*NECO LITERATURE (NUMBER 1)*
Adah is the daughter of both Pa and Ma, Boy’s sister and Francis Obi’s daring wife. As the heroine of the novel, she is given birth in a wrong era where female children are treated as subhuman who is of no value. Her upbringing is surrounded by a struggle for survival, not only of herself but also her dreams, while growing into a woman, moving from a high-class position in her native Nigeria to a very poor class in a predominantly white society. She struggles with motherhood and with being a wife and supporting her entire family along with being her own independent person. Part of her struggle also deals with the issues of marriage.
Adah is a dreamer and self-motivator. Her dream of going to the United Kingdom begins when she was just eight years. This dream of hers is further oiled by a lawyer Nweze, the first lawyer in Ibuza who serves as her role model. Initially, she wants to go to school especially, now that her brother is already in school and she sneaks away from her mother one day and runs to school unregistered. Adah’s dream to go to the United Kingdom to study and for her to achieve greatness over there does not come through without setbacks. Firstly, she is not allowed to go to school because she is a girl and the family does not want to spend the money on her to go and she gets her mother into trouble to actualize this dream.
She is patient and hardworking. Adah is a strong believer in hard work and consistency. It is this attribute that helps her achieve most of her goals. and also makes her develop a thick skin to withstand and confront all the challenges she encountered while growing up as a young girl. One of such challenges occurs when her father dies and she is sent to live with her mother’s brother. when she could not pay for her entrance examination, she cunningly obtains money from her cousin and the fact that she receives one hundred and fifty strokes of canes and this makes her a strong will and stubborn child. For instance, Adah learned very early to be responsible for herself. It is also the driving force behind her desire to never give up on her dream.
Adah is also a responsible mother per-excellence who cares a great deal for her children and she is ever ready to spoil them with all the goodies in the world, unlike Francis who denies them and disowns them and even wishes to put them on for adoption when the children need him most like their father. At the beginning, Adah tries to avoid marriage until she realizes that marriage might be her only way to continue on with her dreams.
As an independent worker and a go-getter, Adah is poised to work and contribute to the family and she is certain that she must care for her five children when she eventually divorces Francis.
Adah is a Christian to the core who prays fervently for her family but does not have time to go to church in England. Adah is also characterized throughout the novel by her sense of initiative and determination to change her course in life.
In Buchi Emecheta’s novel “Second Class Citizen,” Adah Ofili emerges as a central and resilient character, embodying the struggles and triumphs of an African woman navigating a patriarchal society. Adah’s role in the narrative provides profound insights into the challenges faced by women in post-colonial Nigeria, highlighting themes of gender inequality, cultural expectations, and the pursuit of personal and professional fulfillment.
Adah is depicted as a determined and resilient woman, striving to overcome the limitations placed on her as a “second-class citizen” due to her gender and societal norms. From a young age, she exhibits intelligence, ambition, and a thirst for education, setting her apart from traditional gender roles in her community. Despite encountering numerous obstacles and societal disapproval, Adah remains steadfast in her pursuit of education and a better life.
Throughout the novel, Adah undergoes a transformative journey, experiencing both victories and setbacks. She endures poverty, domestic abuse, and cultural barriers while juggling the responsibilities of motherhood and her aspirations as a writer. Adah’s resilience shines through as she navigates the complexities of providing for her children, facing limited employment opportunities, and challenging the constraints imposed by a patriarchal society. Her experiences exemplify the sacrifices and hardships endured by women in similar circumstances.
Adah’s role as a mother adds depth to her character. While she deeply loves her children, she grapples with balancing maternal duties and personal ambitions. This struggle reflects the challenges faced by women striving for self-fulfillment within societal expectations. Adah’s determination to be a writer becomes a powerful symbol of resistance and empowerment. Writing provides her with an outlet for self-expression and an avenue to challenge social norms and injustices faced by women in Nigeria.