Waec Literature in English language 2023

Waec Literature in English language 2023

Here is the Waec Literature in English language 2023


JOHN, K. KARdBO: Let me Die Alone
1. Foreshadowing is a critical element in “Let me Die Alone”, specifically in the roles of Lamboi and Musa. Throughout the play, their dialogues and actions subtly hint at the impending conflict and tragedy. For example, their secretive exchanges, evasive conduct, and suspicious behavior all serve as cues for the upcoming betrayal and turmoil.

2. The soliloquies of both characters also play a significant role. They provide a window into their thoughts, revealing their motivations and inner turmoil. Lamboi’s soliloquies often reveal her fear and regret, while Musa’s soliloquies expose his ambition and moral ambiguity.

WOLE, SoYINkA: The Lion and the Jewel
3. The encounter between Lakunle and Sidi in the Morning is a clash of old and new ideologies. It embodies the central theme of the conflict between traditional African values and Western influences. This encounter reveals Lakunle’s modernist views and his disdain for tradition, while Sidi represents the cultural heritage and traditions of their society.

4. Baroka’s opposition to the construction of the railway can be viewed as a metaphor for his resistance to change and modernization. As the chief of Ilujinle, he believes that the introduction of such technology would disrupt the cultural fabric of his society.


JOHN, OSBORNE: Look Back in Anger
5. The relationship between Jimmy and Helena is a complex one. On the surface, his constant criticism and volatile temperament might suggest that he doesn’t love her. However, it can also be argued that his intense passion and emotional vulnerability reveal a deep, though distorted, form of love.

6. Cliff Lewis acts as a buffer in the play, often mediating conflicts between Jimmy and Alison. He provides a balanced perspective and emotional stability amidst the tumultuous relationships. His role is essential for the narrative progression and emotional dynamics of the play.

7. Troy’s perception of death reveals his complex character. He personifies death, treating it as an opponent he’s destined to face. This reveals his bold, confrontational nature, his existential dread, and his innate struggle with mortality.

8. Bono’s commitment to his friendship with Troy comes from their shared past. Both men have faced similar struggles, and their shared experiences have solidified their bond. Bono admires Troy’s strength and resilience and feels a sense of loyalty to him, even though he does not always agree with Troy’s choices.


9. “1 Government Driver on his Retirement” shows a range of moods, beginning with a sense of liberation and joy at retirement, shifting to nostalgia for his years of service, and finally culminating in a feeling of apprehension and uncertainty about his future.

10. “Black Woman” utilizes alliteration, assonance, and repetition to enhance the rhythm, create a musical quality, and emphasize certain themes and emotions. These techniques create an engaging and immersive reading experience, emphasizing the poet’s admiration for the titular Black woman.


11. In “Do not go Gentle into that Good Night”, the poet’s diction is chosen meticulously to reflect the fierce resistance to death. Words and phrases such as “burn,” “rave,” and “rage” reflect a defiant, passionate tone and invoke powerful, emotional images.

12. Imagery plays a crucial role in “Caged Bird”. The contrast between the caged bird’s bleak, confined existence and the free bird’s
The play opens in the morning, near the village center on the edge of the market. The ‘bush’ school, that is, the village school Lakunle, the school teacher is nearly twenty-three years old, dressed in an “old style and worn-out English suit, rough but not ragged, but clearly “a size or two too small”. Sidi carried a pail of water on her head and Lakunle complains bitterly about such an act because she is at risk of shortening her neck and also because she has exposed her shoulders for everyone in the village to feast his lustful eyes on. Sidi defends such an action when she says at she decides to fold the wrapper high so that she can breathe, and Lakunle insists that she could have worn something on top as most model do. Sidi becomes furious and reprimands Lakunle to desist from being a village gossip and also calls him “the mad man/of llunjunle. because of his meaningless words, but Lakunle is undaunted because he feels that women’s brain is naturally small, women are the weaker sex, only weaker breeds pound yams, bend to plant millet. He foresees that one, two years to come when machines will do those things and he also hints at his intention to turn llunjunle around for good. Sidi becomes fed up with the meaningless dialogue and demands her pail back angrily but debunks the payment of bride price.

Part of Lakunle’s meeting with Sidi is to make known his intention to marry her and she insists that her bride price must be paid according to their custom and tradition and that marrying him without a price would make people think that she is no virgin and that would bring shame to her family.
But Lakunle resists the idea and describes it as a savage custom that is barbaric and uncivilized. He goes further to educate Sidi on the implication of payment of the bride price and his plan. Lakunle calls Sidi a bush and uncivilized girl who does not want to appreciate and accept civilized romance and ideology.
The introductory part of this play between Sidi and Lakunle shows the cultural gap versus modernity.
The use of imagery in “Caged Bird” is central to its impact. Through vivid and contrasting images, Angelou effectively captures the stark difference between freedom and confinement, inviting readers to empathize with the bird’s plight. The poem begins with the lines:

“A free bird leaps
on the back of the wind
and floats downstream
till the current ends
and dips his wing
in the orange sun rays
and dares to claim the sky.”

In these lines, Angelou creates a vibrant image of a free bird soaring in the sky, engaging the reader’s senses and evoking a feeling of liberation. The bird’s ability to “leap,” “float,” and “claim the sky” conjures a sense of boundless movement and limitless possibilities. The imagery of the “orange sun rays” adds warmth and brilliance to the scene, enhancing the contrast with the subsequent description of the caged bird.

The poem then transitions to the caged bird’s perspective, exploring its restricted existence:

“But a bird that stalks
down his narrow cage
can seldom see through
his bars of rage
his wings are clipped and
his feet are tied
so he opens his throat to sing.”

Here, Angelou uses imagery to depict the limitations faced by the caged bird. The bird is described as “stalk[ing] down his narrow cage,” which suggests a sense of confinement and frustration. The metaphorical “bars of rage” represent not only physical barriers but also the bird’s pent-up emotions and desire for freedom. By contrasting the bird’s clipped wings and tied feet with its defiant act of opening its throat to sing, Angelou highlights the indomitable spirit that remains despite the bird’s captivity.

The poem continues to employ vivid imagery throughout, illustrating the stark disparities between the free bird and the caged bird. The free bird is described as “named of the wind” and “trembling back to the sky,” invoking a sense of fluidity and grace. In contrast, the caged bird’s movements are restricted and confined: “his wings are clipped,” and he “beats his bars in vain.” These images create a stark juxtaposition between freedom and oppression, emphasizing the longing for liberation that permeates the poem.
The play explores the spate of cabal or conspiracy which is a secret agreement between two or more people to perform an unlawful act. The conspirators in this play includes Lamboi and Musa. One of their selfish aims or objectives is not only to take charge of the chiefdom but also to kill and maim at will.

Firstly, Lamboi together with Musa, the seer and medicine man nurses a plan to poison and have chief Gbanya murdered for passing the Chiefdom to Yoko, a mere woman. Lamboi then compels Musa to poison chief with Alligator gall when Yoko is not available in the courtyard. Part of Lamboi bitterness is the fact that he advised Gbanya not to undertake the Caulker campaign, but Yoko told him she needed more slaves to work on the farm he’d given her, so they had to go to war which was not their own. Consequently, many of their finest fighters, young men died just to satisfy the want of a woman. The fear of Yoko turning the chiefdom and leading Senehun astray makes them come with their plan to eliminate Gbanya.

In addition, as soon as Lamboi’s plan to take over from Gbanya yield no fruit.

This time around, they intend to kidnap and kill Ndapi’s daughter, Jeneba, bury her in a shallow grave. They will therefore trick and manipulate the people to believe Yoko used her as a sacrifice for more power and authority.
Throughout the play, Jimmy habitually subjects Helena to verbal and emotional assaults, employing her as a receptacle for his pent-up frustrations. His interactions with her are marked by an air of hostility, disdain, and biting sarcasm. Frequently, Jimmy derides Helena’s privileged upper-class background, readily dismissing her perspectives and values. Jimmy’s treatment of Helena appears to derive from his general dissatisfaction and anger with the world, as well as his own personal circumstances, rather than from any sincere romantic sentiment.

While Jimmy’s exchanges with Helena may occasionally exhibit a flirtatious undertone and sporadic instances of camaraderie, they fail to provide a strong basis for genuine romantic love. Instead, their interactions are predominantly characterized by mutual disdain and antagonism, as well as a shared exasperation with social and political systems they perceive as oppressive.

in “Fences” by August Wilson. However, based on the events and interactions portrayed in the play, one can infer why Bono is committed to his friendship with Troy.

Firstly, Bono and Troy have known each other for a long time, and their friendship has endured through various challenges and hardships. Bono has seen Troy’s strengths and weaknesses, and vice versa. This familiarity and history create a strong bond of loyalty, respect, and familiarity.

Secondly, Bono admires Troy’s work ethic and sense of responsibility. Despite facing racial discrimination and economic obstacles, Troy has worked hard to provide for his family and maintain his sense of dignity. Bono respects his friend’s determination and perseverance, which inspires him to support him through thick and thin.

Lastly, Bono genuinely cares about Troy’s well-being and wants him to be happy. He listens patiently to Troy’s stories and concerns, and provides him with emotional support when needed. Bono is a true friend who stands by Troy’s side even when he disagrees with his actions.

In conclusion, Bono is committed to his friendship with Troy because of their shared history, admiration for Troy’s work ethic, and genuine care for his well-being. Their friendship is a source of mutual support, respect, and comfort.
“Caged Bird,” a poem written by Maya Angelou, is a poignant representation of the struggles African Americans encountered during the Civil Rights Movement. A major aspect of this poem is its use of imagery, which is critical in portraying the speaker’s and other marginalized individuals’ feelings and experiences.

The first instance of imagery in the poem is presented in the title itself. The use of the word ‘caged’ to describe the bird creates a vivid mental image of a bird trapped and unable to fly. This portrayal represents African Americans being confined to their limited social and economic status, unable to escape or break free from the confines of their oppression. In the third stanza, the use of the phrases “bars of rage” and “grave of dreams” creates a visual representation of the hopelessness and frustration that African Americans were experiencing during this time.

The second stanza’s imagery is characterized by the phrase “his wings are clipped and his feet are tied.” The speaker creates an image of a bird imprisoned, unable to move its wings and often trapped and bound. The bird’s wings symbolize the potential and drive for freedom. The bird’s feet could be seen as a symbol of grounding, representing the bare minimums that are required to sustain life under a life of oppression. The wings being clipped and feet being tied represents African Americans’ inability to achieve their potential or move toward a better future.

The third stanza continues to elaborate on the bird’s condition, with the line “his shadow shouts on a nightmare scream.” Here, the shadow represents the bird’s image of itself and the nightmare scream represents the agony of losing its actual form and freedom. In a similar way, the African Americans’ sense of self is diminished by the racism and social injustice they experience, causing nightmares that scream out loud, amplified by the weight of oppression.

Finally, in the fourth stanza, the phrase “the caged bird sings” represents the African Americans’ resilience in the face of the harsh circumstances they found themselves in. Even under the worst situations, African Americans could find solace and closure by expressing their selves and singing songs. However, this closure is still accompanied by the bitter reminder that they are caged and trapped.

In conclusion, the use of imagery in Caged Bird creates an extremely poignant representation of the struggles and limitations faced by African Americans, during the civil rights movement. Angelou’s masterful use of language and imagery creates a compelling mental picture in the reader’s mind, forcing them to empathize with those who are caged and trapped.



(Pick any two)
(i) temperature
(ii) moisture
(iii) texture
(iv) pH

(i) Helps to improve soil structure and granulation.
(ii) They help to also improve the aeration of the soil.
(iii) They help to decompose organic materials in the soil to form humus.
(iv) They improve soil water percolation or drainage.
(v) They also increase the collocidal properties of the soil

(i) it attack crops
(ii) it affect the quality of crops
(iii) it reduce the market value of crops
(iv) it Discourage farmers from cultivation

(i) it is high in soil nutrients
(ii) it is rich in humus
(iii) it makes crop to germinate properly
(iv) it is rich in soil organism


Specimen I (Sugarcane): Saccharum officinarum

Specimen J (Pineapple fruit): Ananas comosus

Specimen K (Ginger): Zingiber officinale


Specimen I (Sugarcane): lThe planting material for propagating sugarcane is typically the stem sections or stalks of mature sugarcane plants.

Specimen J (Pineapple fruit): The crown, which consists of the leaves and a small portion of the fruit, is the planting material used for propagating pineapple.

Specimen K (Ginger): The planting material for propagating ginger is the rhizome


1. Increased water consumption: Chicks may drink more water to keep themselves hydrated and regulate their body temperature in response to excessive heat.

2. Panting or open-mouth breathing: Chicks may exhibit panting or open-mouth breathing as a way to dissipate excess heat and cool their bodies.


1. Huddling: Chicks may gather closely together, huddle, and seek warmth from each other to compensate for the lack of sufficient heat from the electric bulb.

2. Reduced activity: Chicks may become less active and move less in an attempt to conserve their body heat.


Advantages of using a charcoal pot in a poultry house:

1. Heat regulation: Charcoal pots can provide a consistent and controlled source of heat, helping to maintain an optimal temperature in the poultry house.

2. Improved air quality: Charcoal has the ability to absorb odors and gases, acting as a natural air purifier.

3. Reduced humidity: Charcoal has a drying effect, which can help lower the humidity level in the poultry house.

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