Literature in English Waec Answers 2024

Literature in English Waec Answers 2024





In Buchi Emecheta’s novel “Second Class Citizen,” conflict in marriage is portrayed as a significant aspect of the protagonist’s life. The main character, Adah, experiences a tumultuous marriage where traditional gender roles, expectations, and cultural norms contribute to her struggle.


Adah’s marriage to Francis is fraught with difficulties from the start. Francis is depicted as a man who is steeped in the patriarchal norms of Nigerian society, expecting his wife to be subservient and to fulfill the roles of a traditional wife and mother without question. This expectation leads to various conflicts, as Adah has her own ambitions, desires for education, and a career, which clash with her husband’s expectations.


Francis becomes increasingly controlling and abusive as Adah continues to pursue her own goals, challenging the power dynamics in their marriage. He often resorts to physical and emotional abuse to assert his dominance and maintain control over Adah. The conflict in their marriage is exacerbated by their move to England, where they face racism and discrimination as immigrants, adding another layer of stress and difficulty to their relationship.


Adah’s struggle to assert herself within her marriage reflects the broader theme of gender inequality and the difficulties faced by women who challenge the status quo. Emecheta explores how the societal pressures of both Nigerian cultural norms and the hardships of immigrant life in England affect the dynamics of marriage and contribute to conflict. Adah’s endurance and eventual steps toward independence represent both her personal struggle and the resilient spirit of women who fight against oppression in various forms.






In Buchi Emecheta’s novel “Second Class Citizen,” the relationship between Adah and Bill is complex and fraught with tension. Adah, the protagonist, is a Nigerian woman who marries Bill, a British man, and moves to London with him. Throughout the novel, their relationship is marked by power imbalances, cultural differences, and gender expectations.


Bill is portrayed as a controlling and abusive husband who views Adah as inferior to him. He constantly belittles her, restricts her freedom, and is insensitive to her cultural background and desires. Adah, on the other hand, is a resilient and determined woman who struggles to assert her own independence and identity in the face of Bill’s oppressive behavior.


Despite the unequal dynamics in their relationship, Adah remains committed to Bill and tries to make the best of her circumstances. She works hard to support their family financially, takes care of their children, and strives to pursue her own educational and career goals. However, she is constantly undermined and marginalized by Bill, who dismisses her ambitions and treats her as a second-class citizen.



The relationship between Adah and Bill serves as a stark illustration of the challenges faced by women in patriarchal societies and interracial marriages. Adah’s marriage to Bill not only exposes her to the racism and discrimination prevalent in British society but also highlights the gender inequalities and domestic violence that permeate their relationship.


Despite the hardships and mistreatment she endures, Adah refuses to be a passive victim and gradually finds the strength to assert her independence and pursue her own aspirations. Throughout the novel, she navigates the complexities of being a second-class citizen in both her marriage and in society, ultimately showcasing her resilience and determination to carve out a better life for herself and her children.


Over all, the relationship between Adah and Bill in “Second Class Citizen” is a reflection of the broader power dynamics of gender, race, and nationality. It highlights the challenges faced by women like Adah who are caught between their traditional cultural values and the expectations of a patriarchal society. Ultimately, Adah’s journey towards self-empowerment and independence serves as a testament to her resilience and determination in the face of adversity.


In conclusion, the relationship between Adah and Bill in “Second Class Citizen” is characterized by power imbalances, cultural clashes, and gender inequalities. Through Adah’s experiences and struggles, the novel sheds light on the challenges faced by women in oppressive marriages and serves as a poignant exploration of identity, resilience, and empowerment.





In “Unexpected Joy at Dawn” by Alex Agyei-Agyiri, the meeting between Nii Tackie and Tally O. is a significant moment that brings together two individuals from very different backgrounds. Nii Tackie, a Ghanaian who has returned home from Nigeria due to the enforcement of the Alien Compliance Order, is struggling to adapt to life back in Ghana. Tally O., on the other hand, is a Nigerian who has found himself in Ghana for his own reasons.


Their meeting is symbolic as it highlights the complex interrelations between Ghanaians and Nigerians during this time of political and social tension, particularly in the wake of the expulsion of Ghanaian emigrants from Nigeria and vice versa. The characters’ interaction offers a microcosm of the wider issues at play, such as immigration, identity, and the arbitrary borders created by colonialism that continue to affect the lives of people within the African continent.


During their encounter, Nii Tackie and Tally O. share their experiences, hopes, and the hardships they have faced. Nii Tackie, once feeling superior when living in Nigeria, now finds himself in a position of insecurity upon return to his home country, Ghana. For Tally O., the experience is an eye-opener to the reality and challenges that come with being an immigrant.


The relationship that forms between them is a testament to the resilience and solidarity that can emerge between individuals even when governmental policies and nationalistic sentiments seek to drive them apart. Their meeting underscores themes of kinship, survival, and the quest for dignity in the face of societal upheaval.


“Unexpected Joy at Dawn” overall is a narrative that examines issues of displacement, belonging, and the human condition during periods of political instability. The exchange between Nii Tackie and Tally O. serves to humanize these issues and offer a nuanced perspective on the experience of African migrants.




In “Unexpected Joy at Dawn” by Alex Agyei-Agyiri, the character Nit, who is also known as Nii Tackie, experiences a complex internal conflict when it comes to Linda’s advances. Linda is an American woman who shows a romantic interest in Nit, but he repeatedly rejects her. His rejection of Linda’s advances can be examined from several perspectives:


Cultural Expectations: Nit is from Ghana and has strong ties to his cultural upbringing and traditional views on relationships. His reluctance to accept Linda’s advances could be rooted in his adherence to the expectations of his own culture, where certain protocols and courtship rituals might be observed, which are different from Linda’s American approaches.


Personal Principles: Nit may have his own personal principles and values that guide how he interacts in romantic situations. He might not feel comfortable engaging in a relationship with someone he doesn’t share a deep emotional connection with, or he may feel that Linda’s approach is too forward or not aligned with his views on how a relationship should progress.


The Complexity of International Relationships: Nit might be aware of the complexities involved in international and intercultural relationships. He might fear the challenges that can arise from differences in cultural backgrounds, values, and expectations. Nit could also be concerned about the implications of such a relationship on his life goals and the expectations of his family.


Personal Commitments: Nit could have commitments or unresolved feelings from a past relationship that make him hesitant to enter a new relationship. He might be focused on his search for his sister, among other personal goals and responsibilities, which take precedence over pursuing a romance with Linda.


Psychological Barriers: Nit might have psychological barriers stemming from his own life experiences, fears of intimacy, or trust issues that prevent him from being receptive to Linda’s advances. He may struggle with vulnerability or have reasons to be cautious about opening up to another person.


Self-Identity and Growth: Nit’s journey is also about self-discovery and personal growth. His rejection of Linda’s advances could signify his prioritization of his own development over romantic entanglements. He may desire to establish his identity and fulfill his personal missions before allowing himself to be involved with someone else.


Overall, Nit’s rejection of Linda’s advances is multifaceted and can be seen as a reflection of his internal struggles, cultural identity, personal values, and the overarching narrative of his search for his sister and his own self-discovery amidst the complexities of a cross-cultural context.




The Epilogue of Ralph Ellison’s “Invisible Man” is significant to the structure of the novel in several ways:


1. Reflective Framework: The novel begins with a Prologue that describes the narrator’s living situation in a basement full of light bulbs, and his perspective on his “invisibility.” The Epilogue serves to bring the story full circle, as the narrator reflects on his journey and the lessons he has learned. This circular structure emphasizes the ongoing struggle of the protagonist and the unresolved nature of racial issues in America.


2. Resolution of the Narrator’s Identity Crisis: Throughout the novel, the narrator struggles with his identity and how society perceives him. In the Epilogue, he comes to terms with his invisibility and expresses a desire to rejoin the visible world, suggesting a resolution to his internal conflict and a step towards self-actualization.


3. Clarification of Themes: The Epilogue gives the protagonist an opportunity to discuss the themes of the novel more overtly, such as the complexity of identity, the social invisibility of marginalized groups, and the necessity for societal change. The narrator’s realizations and his intention to tell his story shed light on the importance of narrative and visibility for those who have been oppressed or overlooked by the dominant culture.


4. Call to Social Action: Ellison uses the Epilogue to encourage readers to acknowledge and address the invisible among them. It also acts as a call to action, inspiring readers to examine the ways in which society ignores or misrepresents certain groups, and to work towards a more inclusive and understanding society.


5. Philosophical Insight: The Epilogue allows the narrator to philosophize about his experiences and share the wisdom he has gained. The musings in the final pages resonate with existential themes and encourage readers to ponder the very nature of existence, individuality, society, and the human condition.


6. The Reaffirmation of Narrative: The Epilogue reaffirms the narrator’s decision to tell his story, reinforcing the power of storytelling as a means of reclaiming identity and agency. Ellison underscores the importance of narrative in shaping individual identity and collective understanding.


7. Provides Closure, Yet Opens Dialogue: While the Epilogue brings some closure to the story, it also leaves the door open for interpretation and dialogue. The novel does not end on a definitive note, suggesting that the issues raised by the narrator’s experiences are not definitively resolved, but ongoing matters that require continuous effort and engagement from the audience.


Overall, the Epilogue is an integral part of “Invisible Man,” effectively bookending the novel and providing a poignant conclusion that strengthens the thematic weight of the book and leaves a lasting impact on the reader.





In Ralph Ellison’s “Invisible Man,” the metaphor of blindness pervades the novel and operates on multiple levels to reinforce themes of invisibility, ignorance, and lack of individual insight.


Firstly, the narrator himself is “invisible” in a metaphorical sense because society refuses to see him as a full individual. This societal blindness to his identity and humanity is a central theme of the book, reflecting the broader social issues of racial prejudice and stereotyping. It’s a form of societal blindness that affects not just the narrator but all African Americans within the context of the novel.


Secondly, the motif of physical blindness among characters in the novel serves to mirror their metaphorical blindness. Characters such as Brother Jack, the leader of The Brotherhood, who literally loses an eye, is depicted as metaphorically blind to the individual needs and humanity of the black members he purportedly serves. His glass eye symbolizes the lack of true vision or understanding, which is a critique of ideological blindness, where adherence to a specific ideology leads to overlooking individuality and personal truth.


In addition to individual characters, there are instances of group blindness—where entire segments of society fail to perceive the humanity in others due to prejudice, societal norms, or ideological fervor. The resulting social blindness perpetuates systems of oppression and discrimination, as exemplified by various groups in the book, including the white supremacists and the communists, all of whom fail to truly recognize the worth and identity of others.


The metaphor of blindness is also integral in highlighting the struggle of African Americans to assert their identity in a society that refuses to acknowledge them. The blindness experienced by white characters in the novel symbolizes their willful ignorance of the realities of racism and the struggles of black people.


Finally, the metaphor urges readers to reflect on their own perceptual and conceptual limitations. Ellison is inviting us to consider the ways in which our own biases, fears, and social conditions may blind us to the full humanity of those around us, particularly those who are marginalized or oppressed. The metaphor serves as a powerful commentary on the human condition and the importance of empathy, awareness, and the willingness to truly “see” beyond one’s limited perspective.


Number 7



Hindley is insanely jealous of Heathcliff. He resents the fact that his father treats this dark, brooding creature, this “imp of Satan,” like he’s the Prodigal Son. Hindley has some major hang-ups; he’s tortured by self-loathing and personal inadequacy which he tries to drown in alcohol. Hindley never received much in the way of love from his father, but then he’s never been particularly lovable in any case. Still, the notable lack of paternal love Hindley receives from his father stands in stark contrast to how his old man treats Heathcliff. Hindley is his father’s son, yet Heathcliff gets all the love. How is that fair?


So once his old man’s safely six feet under, Hindley gets to work exacting a terrible revenge upon Heathcliff for daring to be the object of Mr. Earnshaw’s love and affection. He brutalizes the poor guy, treating him as little better than a slave. He deprives Heathcliff of money, an education, an opportunity to be someone in life. Yet Hindley’s jealousy is ultimately all to no avail. He sinks even further into a life of drink-fueled dissipation while Heathcliff finally gains control of Wuthering Heights.


Hindley Earnshaw’s hatred for Heathcliff had its roots in the fact that his father, Mr. Earnshaw, favored the boy over himself.  Hindley had been fourteen years old when Mr. Earnshaw first brought Heathcliff, whom he had found starving in a Liverpool slum, home to live at Wuthering Heights.  It was clear from the very beginning that Mr. Earnshaw preferred the young newcomer to his own son, and Hindley reacted with jealousy and a barely suppressed rage.  He took every opportunity to torment Heathcliff, and his hatred for the boy was returned in kind.  In contrast, Heathcliff developed a special closeness to Hindley’s sister Catherine, but although their consuming relationship haunted them both throughout their lives, it never came to fruition.  Hindley, with his cruel manipulations, had deprived Heathcliff of any chance he might have had to become an educated man and had forced him to labor as a servant.  Hindley effectively managed to turn Heathcliff into someone it would be a disgrace for his sister Catherine to marry.


Hindley was not strong in character.  He was cruel and vengeful as a child, and at Mr. Earnshaw’s death, he became the master of Wuthering Heights, and ruled with a tyrannical hand.  After his wife died, Hindley began drinking heavily, and his personality continued to degenerate.  At his lowest point, his old nemesis Heathcliff achieved his revenge, gambling with the drunken Hindley until he won all his possessions, finally becoming himself the master of Wuthering Heights.



There seems to be a confusion in the question, as there is no character by the name of “Mr. Lamshaw” in Emily Brontë’s novel “Wuthering Heights.” However, the character whose death significantly alters Heathcliff’s fortunes is Mr. Earnshaw, the former master of Wuthering Heights and father of Hindley and Catherine Earnshaw.


Mr. Earnshaw discovers Heathcliff as a homeless boy in the streets of Liverpool and decides to bring him back to his family at Wuthering Heights as a member of his household. During Mr. Earnshaw’s life, Heathcliff is raised alongside Hindley and Catherine, and Mr. Earnshaw grows quite fond of him, even favoring him over his own son Hindley, which causes tension in the family.


After Mr. Earnshaw’s death, Heathcliff’s fortunes take a significant turn for the worse. Hindley, who resents Heathcliff, becomes the master of Wuthering Heights and begins to mistreat Heathcliff, reducing him to the status of a servant. This marks the start of Heathcliff’s descent into bitterness and his quest for revenge against those he perceives as having wronged him, which includes the Earnshaw family and the related Linton family.


Heathcliff’s fortunes later change once more when he mysteriously acquires wealth during his three-year absence from Wuthering Heights, and he returns to enact his revenge upon those who he believes have wronged him by securing ownership of both Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange, the Linton family home.

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