WAEC CRS ANSWERS 2023
Here is the waec CRS Answers 2023
*WAEC 2023: CRS ESSAY ANSWERS*
*Theory (Section A)*
1. (a) The events that led to the marriage between Moses and Zipporah:
After fleeing from Egypt, Moses arrived in Midian and encountered a group of shepherd girls being harassed by shepherds at a well. He intervened and helped them water their flock. The girls returned home and told their father, Jethro, about the incident. Jethro was impressed by Moses’ actions and invited him to their home.
Moses accepted Jethro’s invitation and stayed with him. Over time, Moses developed a close relationship with Jethro and his family. He worked as a shepherd, tending to Jethro’s flock. During his stay, Moses grew fond of Jethro’s daughter, Zipporah.
Moses eventually expressed his desire to marry Zipporah to Jethro, who agreed to give her in marriage. They had a wedding ceremony, and Zipporah became Moses’ wife. They had two sons together, Gershom and Eliezer.
(1b) Two reasons why people seek asylum:
i. Fleeing Persecution: One of the primary reasons people seek asylum is to escape persecution in their home countries. This persecution can be based on various factors such as race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group. Seeking asylum allows individuals to find safety and protection in another country.
ii . Humanitarian Reasons: People may seek asylum due to humanitarian crises, such as armed conflicts, war, or natural disasters. These situations often result in the displacement of populations and the breakdown of essential services and infrastructure. Seeking asylum provides individuals with the opportunity to find shelter, food, and medical assistance in a more stable and secure environment.
2. (a) The enhancement of the building of the Temple during Solomon’s reign through diplomatic relations between Tyre and Israel:
During Solomon’s reign, Tyre, a Phoenician city-state, played a significant role in the construction of the Temple in Jerusalem. Solomon sought the assistance of King Hiram of Tyre, who had a close and friendly relationship with him. Solomon sent a message to King Hiram, requesting materials and skilled workers for the construction project.
King Hiram responded positively to Solomon’s request and sent cedar logs from Lebanon, renowned for their quality and durability, as well as skilled craftsmen and masons. This support from Tyre greatly facilitated the construction of the Temple. The craftsmen from Tyre worked alongside the Israelite workers, contributing their expertise and knowledge to the project.
(2b) Two benefits of diplomatic relations among nations:
i. Mutual Cooperation and Support: Diplomatic relations foster cooperation and support between nations. They enable countries to collaborate on various issues of common interest, such as trade, security, education, culture, and technology. Through diplomatic channels, nations can share resources, expertise, and experiences, leading to mutual benefits and the achievement of shared goals.
ii. Conflict Resolution and Peaceful Coexistence: Diplomatic relations provide a platform for peaceful dialogue and negotiations between nations. Through diplomatic channels, countries can address disputes, conflicts, and disagreements in a diplomatic and non-violent manner. Diplomatic efforts, such as mediation and negotiation, can help to resolve conflicts and promote peaceful coexistence, reducing the likelihood of armed conflicts and fostering stability in the international arena.
3. (a) The events that took place in Judah after the death of King Josiah to the first deportation of the Jews:
After the death of King Josiah, his son Jehoahaz became the king of Judah. However, his reign was short-lived as he was deposed by Pharaoh Necho of Egypt, who placed Jehoahaz’s brother, Jehoiakim, on the throne. Jehoiakim’s reign was marked by
political instability and rebellion against foreign powers.
During Jehoiakim’s reign, Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon, invaded Judah and took control of the region. Jehoiakim initially served as a vassal to Babylon but later rebelled against them, aligning himself with Egypt. This led to further Babylonian invasions and sieges of Jerusalem.
After Jehoiakim’s death, his son Jehoiachin became king but was quickly deposed by Nebuchadnezzar. Jehoiachin, along with a significant number of people from Jerusalem, was deported to Babylon in the first wave of exile.
(3b) Four causes of civil unrest in a nation:
I. Political Oppression: When a government suppresses the rights and freedoms of its citizens, it can lead to civil unrest. Lack of political participation, authoritarian regimes, censorship, corruption, and human rights abuses can all contribute to widespread dissatisfaction and protests.
ii. Economic Inequality: Large disparities in wealth and income distribution can create social tensions and fuel civil unrest. When a significant portion of the population faces poverty, unemployment, and limited opportunities, it can lead to frustration, resentment, and demands for economic justice.
iii. Ethnic or Religious Conflicts: Deep-rooted ethnic or religious divisions can contribute to civil unrest. Discrimination, marginalization, and unequal treatment based on ethnic or religious identities can result in social unrest, protests, and even violent conflicts.
iv. Lack of Social Justice: When a society fails to provide basic services, such as education, healthcare, housing, and social welfare, it can lead to civil unrest. Inadequate access to essential services and perceived injustice in resource allocation can trigger social movements and protests demanding social justice and equality.
(a) After the request of the Samaritans to participate in the construction of the temple, the events that followed were marked by tensions and conflicts:
i. Rejection by the Jews: The Jews, who were tasked with rebuilding the Temple in Jerusalem, did not accept the offer from the Samaritans. The Jews considered the Samaritans to be a mixed race with impure worship practices, as they had intermarried with other nations and incorporated non-Israelite religious beliefs. Therefore, the Jews rejected the Samaritans’ proposal to join in the construction.
ii. Opposition from the Samaritans: The rejection by the Jews led to bitterness and hostility from the Samaritans. Feeling rejected and slighted, the Samaritans became adversaries of the Jews and actively opposed their efforts to rebuild the Temple. They attempted to hinder the construction process and undermine the Jews’ religious practices.
iii. Political Interference: The Samaritans sought to impede the rebuilding of the Temple by appealing to the ruling authorities. They lodged complaints against the Jews with Persian officials, making false accusations about their intentions and activities. The Samaritans aimed to use political influence to halt the construction and cause trouble for the Jews.
iv. Resumed Construction and Discord: Despite the opposition, the Jews continued with the construction of the Temple. However, the tensions between the Jews and Samaritans persisted throughout the rebuilding process. The Samaritans engaged in acts of sabotage, spreading rumors, and stirring up conflicts between the Jewish community and the Persian authorities.
(4b) Four causes of tension among neighbors:
i. Territorial Disputes: Boundary conflicts and territorial disputes can arise when neighboring countries or communities have overlapping claims over specific areas. Competing interests, historical grievances, and natural resource disputes can fuel tensions and even lead to armed conflicts.
ii. Cultural or Ethnic Differences: Differences in culture, ethnicity, language, and religious beliefs can create tension among neighbors. Prejudices, stereotypes, and misunderstandings based on these differences can lead to social divisions, discrimination, and conflict.
iii. Resource Competition: Competition over limited resources such as water, oil, land, or economic opportunities can strain relations between neighbors. Disputes over resource allocation and the unequal distribution of benefits can escalate tensions and trigger conflicts.
iv. Historical or Political Conflicts: Past conflicts, unresolved historical grievances, or political disagreements between neighboring countries can contribute to ongoing tensions. Memories of wars, colonization, or political rivalries can perpetuate animosity and hinder peaceful relations between neighbors.
Peter advised elders to look after God’s flock with tender care. They should work not as being under any external constraint, but willingly; not with the desire to make material gains, but with the eagerness that comes from the heart; not with a presumptuous and domineering spirit but as examples to be copied by the flock, so that at the appropriate time, they might attain the crown of glory.
Peter advised the young ones to be in humble subjection to the leaders, for God humiliates the proud and exalts the humble. However, for both young and old, Peter recommends the humble approach. They should leave all cases of anxiety in the able hands of God. They should, in all soberness, be vigilant against the temptation of the devil who is always around to lead the spiritually weak ones to destruction in hell. Armed with patient faith, they should remember that suffering is part of their Christian calling, knowing that suffering will lead to glory in Christ who has eternal dominion.
(i)Pride: People often behave with self-centeredness, ego, and pride.
(ii)Spiritual and Emotional Immaturity: Maturity helps a person understand that differences in perspective broaden understanding.
(iii)Change and Inflexibility: In reality, change is the norm.
(5a) The events that took place before Jesus made the above statement as recorded in Matthew:
In Matthew’s account, before Jesus encountered Satan, He had been fasting for forty days and forty nights in the wilderness. During this period of intense physical deprivation, Satan approached Him to tempt Him.
i. First Temptation: Satan tempted Jesus to turn stones into bread, appealing to His physical hunger. Satan suggested that Jesus could use His divine power for personal satisfaction. However, Jesus responded by quoting Scripture, saying that man does not live by bread alone but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God.
ii. Second Temptation: Satan took Jesus to the pinnacle of the temple in Jerusalem and challenged Him to jump off, saying that the angels would save Him. Here, Satan was testing Jesus’ trust in God’s protection. Jesus again quoted Scripture, saying that it is written, “You shall not put the Lord your God to the test.”
iv. Third Temptation: Satan took Jesus to a high mountain and showed Him all the kingdoms of the world, offering them to Jesus if He would worship him. Satan was appealing to Jesus’ desire for power and authority. Jesus firmly rejected Satan, saying, “Get behind me, Satan! For it is written, ‘You shall worship the Lord your God and him only shall you serve.'”
(5b) Three lessons Christians can learn from Jesus’ encounter with Satan:
i. Resisting Temptation: Jesus’ encounter with Satan demonstrates the importance of resisting temptation. Even when faced with enticing offers and appeals to our desires, we can learn from Jesus to stand firm on God’s Word and refuse to compromise our faith and integrity. Jesus’ reliance on Scripture shows the power and effectiveness of using God’s Word as a weapon against temptation.
ii. Trusting in God’s Provision: When Satan tempted Jesus to turn stones into bread, Jesus chose to trust in God’s provision rather than satisfying His immediate physical hunger. This teaches Christians the lesson of relying on God’s timing and provision. We are called to trust that God will meet our needs in His perfect way and timing, rather than succumbing to the temptation to take matters into our own hands.
iii. Worshiping and Serving God Alone: Jesus’ firm response to Satan emphasized the importance of worshiping and serving God alone. Christians can learn from this encounter to prioritize God above all else and reject any form of idolatry or compromise. Our allegiance and devotion should be solely directed toward God, recognizing His supreme authority in our lives. This teaches us to guard our hearts against the allure of worldly power, wealth, and fame, and to keep God at the center of our worship and service.
Solomon, the son of King David, ascended to the throne of Israel and desired to build a magnificent temple for the worship of God in Jerusalem. He sent a message to King Hiram of Tyre, a renowned Phoenician ruler known for his skill in construction and trade. Solomon expressed his admiration for Hiram’s expertise and requested his assistance in the construction of the temple.
King Hiram responded positively to Solomon’s request and sent his skilled craftsmen, particularly a man named Huram-Abi (also known as Hiram-Abiff), who was half-Israelite and half-Tyrean. Huram-Abi was an expert in working with bronze, and he played a crucial role in the temple’s construction.
Furthermore, King Hiram provided Solomon with the necessary materials for the temple. The account in 1 Kings 5:8-11 describes how Hiram sent cedar and cypress logs from Lebanon to Jerusalem. These logs were used for the construction of the temple’s structure and its interior decoration.
The relationship between Solomon and Hiram went beyond mere trade and construction. They established a friendly alliance and engaged in peaceful relations. They even exchanged gifts as a symbol of their friendship and cooperation. In 1 Kings 5:12, it is mentioned that Solomon gave Hiram twenty thousand cors of wheat and twenty thousand baths of pure oil each year.
The cooperation between Tyre and Israel continued throughout the construction of the temple. Skilled Tyrean workers collaborated with Israelite craftsmen and laborers under Solomon’s supervision. The temple gradually took shape and became a splendid edifice, renowned for its grandeur and magnificence.
The diplomatic relations between Tyre and Israel during Solomon’s reign were vital in facilitating the construction of the temple. Tyre’s contribution of skilled workers and building materials, coupled with the friendly alliance between the two kingdoms, ensured the successful completion of the project. The temple of Solomon stood as a testament to the cooperation between these two nations and served as a central place of worship for the Israelites for centuries to come.
(PICK ANY TWO)
(i) Diplomatic relations provide a platform for dialogue and negotiations, enabling nations to resolve conflicts peacefully.
(ii) It facilitates economic cooperation between nations such as engaging countries in trade agreements, investment partnerships, and economic collaborations which foster economic growth, create employment opportunities, and enhance prosperity by promoting the exchange of goods, services, and knowledge.
(iii) It fosters cultural exchange and understanding among nations.
(iv) Diplomatic relations enable countries to collaborate on security and defense issues which helps address common security challenges, promoting stability and safeguarding national interests.
(v) Diplomatic relations allow nations to address global challenges collectively
(6a) Then Peter came to Jesus and asked, “Lord, how often shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? Up to seven times?” Jesus answered him, “I do not say to you, up to seven times, but up to seventy times seven.”Matthew 18:21-22
In this response, Jesus emphasizes the importance of limitless forgiveness. By using the phrase “seventy times seven,” Jesus implies that forgiveness should be extended without counting or limit. It indicates a radical call to show mercy and forgiveness, even in the face of repeated offenses.
(6b) Three benefits one stands to gain in forgiving others:
ii. Emotional Healing: Forgiving others brings emotional to the forgiver. Holding onto grudges, anger, and resentment can cause stress, anxiety, and bitterness, affecting one’s well-being.
ii. Restoration of Relationships: Forgiveness has the potential to restore broken relationships. When someone forgives, it opens the door for reconciliation and the rebuilding of trust and intimacy. Forgiveness allows for the possibility of healing wounds, fostering empathy, and rebuilding a stronger and healthier relationship with the person who has been forgiven.
iii. Spiritual Growth and Freedom: Forgiveness is a deeply spiritual act that aligns with the teachings and example of Jesus. When individuals forgive, they reflect the character of God, who is merciful and forgiving.
The believers’ communal living was such that the Christians shared their possessions in common. Ananias and Sapphira sold their own piece of land, but brought only a part of the money to the Church. This was strictly against the spirit of communal life of the Christians. Peter asked Ananias why satan had led him to lie to the Holy Spirit, telling him that the land and the proceeds were theirs and they were free to handle them the way they wished. But by declaring publicly that they were handing over the entire proceeds, they had not lied to man but to God. When Ananias heard these words of rebuke from Peter, he fell down and died. Young men later carried away his body for burial. His wife / Sapphira came in, unaware of what had happened to her husband. Peter asked her whether they had sold the land for the amount surrendered, she affirmed it. Peter asked her why she conspired with her husband to tempt the spirit of God telling her to listen to the approaching footsteps of those who had gone to bury her husband: Immediately she heard this she fell down and died. Her body was carried away by the same young men who had earlier carried her husband for burial. Great fear came upon the Church and upon all who heard the news.
(i)Ananias and Sapphira were misguided into thinking that they could serve both God and Mammon at the same time.
(ii)One can deceive a fellow man, but cannot deceive God who reads the heart of man.
(iii) The Church was established by God and controlled by the Holy Spirit. Members must work in accordance with guidelines set up by the Holy Spirit.
(iv) God punishes sin of disobedience and His judgment is certain. We should give with sincerity / honesty.
Moses was born into a Hebrew family during a time when the Israelites were enslaved in Egypt. Pharaoh, the ruler of Egypt, had ordered the killing of all Hebrew baby boys to control their population. To save Moses’ life, his mother placed him in a basket and set it adrift on the Nile River. The basket was discovered by Pharaoh’s daughter, who took Moses as her own and raised him in the Egyptian royal court.
As Moses grew older, he became aware of his Hebrew heritage and felt a deep connection to his people. One day, while witnessing an Egyptian taskmaster mistreating a Hebrew slave, Moses intervened and ended up killing the taskmaster. Fearing the consequences, Moses fled Egypt and found refuge in the land of Midian.
In Midian, Moses came across a well where he saw seven daughters of the priest of Midian, Jethro, attempting to water their father’s flock. Some shepherds were harassing them and preventing them from accessing the water. Moses came to their aid, driving away the shepherds and helping the women water their flock.
Impressed by Moses’ chivalry and strength, the daughters returned home and told their father, Jethro, about the incident. Jethro invited Moses to their home and offered him hospitality. Moses accepted and stayed with Jethro, working as a shepherd and helping tend Jethro’s flocks.
During his time in Midian, Moses developed a close relationship with Jethro’s family. Moses’ kindness, righteousness, and his encounter with the burning bush, where he received a divine call from God to free the Israelites from bondage, earned him Jethro’s respect and trust.
Moses eventually expressed his desire to marry one of Jethro’s daughters, Zipporah. Jethro gave his consent, and Zipporah became Moses’ wife. They had two sons together, Gershom and Eliezer.
After his marriage, Moses received his divine mission from God to return to Egypt and confront Pharaoh, demanding the release of the Israelites. With Zipporah and their children, Moses embarked on the journey back to Egypt to fulfill his God-given purpose.
(i) Persecution: Many people seek asylum due to persecution based on factors such as their race, religion, nationality, political beliefs, or membership in a particular social group. Seeking asylum allows them to escape persecution and find refuge in a country where they can live without fear of harm.
(ii) War and Conflict: Individuals fleeing war-torn regions or areas plagued by armed conflict seek asylum to protect themselves and their families from the perils of war. Seeking asylum provides them with a chance to seek safety and rebuild their lives in a more stable environment.