Office Location is defined as the place and site where the office of an organisation is situated. 


(i)Getting the Required Space:

Before finally deciding the location it would be essential to find out whether the minimum required space is available in a given location.

(ii) Availability of Transport:

The office should be so located that efficient means of transport are available to the staff as well as the customers. This would ensure smooth functioning of the office.

(iii) Availability of Various Facilities of Services:

These facilities such a bank, insurance companies, post office, road transport company’s office, retail shops, and restaurants ensure a greater efficiency of the business since they are to be used by the staff as well as the business.

(iv) Effects of Localization:

If the office is located at a place where the other units of the office engaged in similar business, are located, it would ensure a better customer service and a reputation. 

(v) The Status Quo of Surroundings:

It would be ideal to locate an office building in a place where the surroundings are healthier. Noise, fumes and congestion in an area have a bad effect on the health and the environment of the office work.



(i) Labour Unions:

In certain occupations like construction, hotels, maritime industry etc., (i.e., industries where there is instability of employment) all recruits usually come from unions

(ii) Central Application File:

A file of past applicants who were not selected earlier may be maintained. In order to keep the file alive, applications in the files must be checked at periodical intervals.

(iii) Casual Callers:

Those personnel who casually come to the company for employment may also be considered for the vacant post. It is most economical method of recruitment

(iv) Factory Gates:

Certain workers present themselves at the factory gate every day for employment. This method of recruitment is very popular in India for unskilled or semi-skilled labour.

(v) Advertisement:

It is a method of recruitment frequently used for skilled workers, clerical and higher staff. Advertisement can be given in newspapers and professional journals. These advertisements attract applicants in large number of highly variable quality.



 An intercom (“intercommunication device”) or interphone:  is a stand-alone voice communications system for use within a building or small collection of buildings, functioning independently of the public telephone network, Intercoms are generally mounted permanently in buildings and vehicles.


Telex, international message-transfer service consisting of a network of teleprinters connected by a system of switched exchanges. Subscribers to a telex service can exchange textual communications and data directly and securely with one another.


A telephone directory, commonly called a telephone book, telephone address book, phone book, or the white and yellow pages, is a listing of telephone subscribers in a geographical area or subscribers to services provided by the organization that publishes the directory.




fax services or machine: is a device that is used to send documents electronically over a telephone network. The transmissions it sends are called “faxes, ” and these can be between two fax machines, or between a fax machine and computer or online fax service that is equipped to send and receive faxes.



(i) Alphabetical Classification

Under this system letters are filed in the alphabetical order of the names of parties. This classification is the most commonly followed of all. 

(ii) Numerical Classification:

In this method of classification, each folder or record is given a number, and the files are placed in strict numerical order

(iii) Subject Classification:

It is a method of classification in which all documents relating to a subject are brought together in one file, even though they may have come from different sources and from many different people

(iv) Chronological Classification:

Under this method various records are identified and arranged in strict date order and sometimes even according to the time of the day. 

(v) Geographical Classification:

As the name implies, this classification is based on the geographical origin of a document or paper.



A bill of exchange is a written order used primarily in international trade that binds one party to pay a fixed sum of money to another party on demand or at a predetermined date.


(i) The instrument must be in writing.

(ii):The instrument must be signed by the drawer.

(iii) The instrument must contain an order to pay, which is express and unconditional.

(iv) The drawer, drawee and the payee must be certain and definite individuals.



Recordkeeping is the act of keeping track of the history of a person’s or organization’s activities, generally by creating and storing consistent, formal records.


(I) Using barcode technology with tracking software can greatly reduce the number of lost or missing files

(ii) Implementing and enforcing policies and procedures governing who can check in and check out files will help with location and tracking.

(iii) Have a clearly defined policy identifying who is responsible for files for the duration of its lifecycle.

(iv) Amalgamating your collections and repositories into a centralized filing room allows for much better file security, supervision and oversight.

(v) New RFID tag technology will allow you to track files with amazing precision, not just from last user or sign-out point, but to the actual location where the file physically resides at any given moment.



A memorandum is a short message or record used for internal communication in a business

(b) A report is a document that presents information in an organized format for a specific audience and purpose. Although summaries of reports may be delivered orally, complete reports are almost always in the form of written documents.


(d) Minutes of meeting:  are  protocols or, informally, notes, are the instant written record of a meeting or hearing,  They typically describe the events of the meeting and may include a list of attendees, a statement of the issues considered by the participants, and related responses or decisions for the issues.


A business letter is a letter from one company to another, or such organizations and their customers, clients, or other external parties,  A business letter is sometimes useful because it produces a permanent written record, and may be taken more seriously by the recipient than other forms of communication.


(i) Dictation Machine

Printers. … 

(ii) Document Scanners.

(iii) Photocopy Machine, Copiers.

(iv) Laminating Machines. 

(v) Label Makers.

(vi) Shredders.


(i) Cheque

(ii) Bank draft

(iii) Telegraphic Transfer (T.T)

(iv) Automated Teller Machine (ATM) card.

(v) Electronic transfer


(i) Cheque:  is a document that orders a bank to pay a specific amount of money from a person’s account to the person in whose name the cheque has been issued

(ii) Bank draft: A banker’s draft is a cheque provided to a customer of a bank or acquired from a bank for remittance purposes, that is drawn by the bank, and drawn on another bank or payable through or at a bank

(iii) A telegraphic transfer (TT):  is an electronic method of transferring funds utilized primarily for overseas wire transactions. 

(iv) An automated teller machine (ATM) is an electronic banking outlet that allows customers to complete basic transactions without the aid of a branch representative or teller.

(v) Electronic transfer:  Electronic funds transfer is the electronic transfer of money from one bank account to another, either within a single financial institution or across multiple institutions, via computer-based systems, without the direct intervention of bank staff. 


 Filling is the form of records which preserves letters , vouchers report , papers and other documents in a systematic manner 


(i) Numerical classification.

(ii) Subjective classification.

(iii) Geographic classification.

(iv) Chronological classification.


(i) Alphabetical classification:

The filing method under which files and folders are arranged in order of alphabets of the names of person or institution concerned with such file is alphabetical classification. 

(ii) Numerical classification:

The filing method under which files and folders are arranged in order of number is called numerical classification. All files and folders are given separate numbers. 

(iii) Geographic classification:

In this method, files are grouped according to the geographical location of firm, organization or person, Under this method name of places are written in file and are arranged in drawer either in alphabetical or numerical order whichever is suitable for organization.

(iv) Chronological classification:

In this method, files and folders of documents are arranged in an order of their date, day, and time. In an office, several letters and documents may be received and dispatched. They all are arranged according to time and date when they were received and dispatched

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