Biology jamb syllabus 2022

Biology jamb syllabus 2022

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Biology is to
prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the
course objectives, which are to:
1. demonstrate sufficient knowledge of the concepts of the interdependence and unity of life;
2. account for the continuity of life through reorganization, inheritance and evolution;
3. apply biological principles and concepts to everyday life, especially to matters affecting the
individual, society, the environment, community health and the economy.

1. Living organisms:
a. Characteristics
b. Cell structure and functions of cell
Components

c. Level of organization
i. Cell e.g. Amoeba, cheek cell
ii. Tissue, e.g. epithelial tissues

iii. Organ, e.g. leaf and heart
iv. Systems, e.g. reproductive

v. Organisms e.g. Chlamydomonas
2. Evolution among the following:
a. Monera (prokaryotes), e.g. bacteria and
blue green algae.
b. Protista (protozoans and protophyta),
e.g. Amoeba, Euglena and Paramecium
c. Fungi, e.g. mushroom and Rhizopus.
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between the characteristics of
living and non-living things;
ii. identify the cell structures;
iii. analyse the functions of the components of
plants and animal cells;
iv. compare and contrast the structure of plant and
animal cells;
v. trace the levels of organization among
organisms in their logical sequence in relation
to the five kingdom classification of living
organisms.
Candidates should be able to:
i. analyse external features and characteristics of the
listed organisms:
ii. apply the knowledge from (i) above to
demonstrate increase in structural complexity;
iii. trace the stages in the life histories of the listed
organisms;

d. Plantae (plants)

i. Thallophyta (e.g. Spirogyra)
ii. Bryophyta (mosses and liveworts) e.g.
Bryachymenium and Merchantia.
iii. Pteridophyta (ferns) e.g. Dryopteris.
iv. Spermatophyta (Gymnospermae and
Angiospermae)
– Gymnosperms e.g. Cycads and
conifers.
– Angiosperms (monocots, e.g. maize;
dicots, e.g. water leaf)
e. Animalia (animals)
i. Invertebrates
– coelenterate (e.g. Hydra)
– Platyhelminthes (flatworms) e.g. Taenia
– Nematoda (roundworms)
– Annelida (e.g. earthworm)
– Arthropoda (insects) e.g. Millipedes,
ticks, mosquito, cockroach, housefly,
bee, butterfly
– Mollusca (e.g. snails)
ii. Multicellular animals (vertebrates)
– pisces (cartilaginous and bony fish)
– Amphibia (e.g. toads and frogs)
– Reptilia (e.g. lizards, snakes and
turtles)
– Aves (birds)
– Mammalia (mammals)
3. Structural/behavioural adaptations of
vertebrates (bony fish, toad, lizard, bird,
small mammal) to the environment.
iv. apply the knowledge of the life histories to
demonstrate gradual transition from life in
water to life on land;
v. trace the evolution of the listed plants.
Candidates should be able to:
i. trace the evolution of the invertebrate animals;
ii. determine the economic importance of the
insects studied;
iii. asses their values to the environment;
i. trace the evolution of multi-cellular animals;
ii. determine their economic importance.
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe how the various structures and behaviour
adapt these organisms to their environment;

1. Internal structure of a flowering plant

i. Root
ii. Stem
iii. Leaf
b. Internal structure of a mammal
2. Nutrition
a. Modes of nutrition
i. Autotrophic
ii. Heterotrophic
Types of Nutrition
b. Plant nutrition
i. Photosynthesis
ii. Mineral requirements
(macro and micro-nutrients)
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the transverse sections of these
organs;
ii. relate the structure of these organs to their
functions.

Candidates should be able to:
i. examine the arrangement of the mammalian
internal organs;
ii. describe the appearance and position of the
digestive, reproductive and excretory organs.
Candidates should be able to:
i. compare the photosynthetic and chemosynthetic
modes of nutrition;
ii. provide examples from both flowering and non-
flowering plants;
iii. compare autotropic and heterotrophic modes of
nutrition.
Candidates should be able to:
differentiate the following examples:
– holozoic (sheep and man)
– Parasitic (roundworm, tapeworm and
Loranthus)
– saprophytic (Rhizopus and mushroom)
– carnivorous plants (sundew and
bladderwort)
– determine their nutritional value.
Candidates should be able to:
i. analyse the light and dark reactions, materials
and conditions necessary for photosynthesis;
ii. determine the necessity of light, carbon (IV)
oxide and chlorophyll in photosynthesis;
iii. detect the presence of starch in a leaf as an
evidence of photosynthesis.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify macro-and micro-elements required
by plants;
ii. determine the deficiency symptoms of
nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium.

Biology

c. Animal nutrition
i. Classes of food substances;
carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils,
vitamins, mineral salts and water
ii. Food tests (e.g. starch, reducing
sugar, protein, oil, fat etc.
iii. The mammalian tooth
(structures, types and functions)
iv. Mammalian alimentary canal
v. Nutrition process (ingestion, digestion,
absorption, and assimilation of digested
food.
3. Transport
a. Need for transportation
b. Materials for transportation.
Excretory products, gases, manufactured food,
digested food, nutrient, water and
hormones)
c. Channels for transportation
i. Mammalian circulatory system (heart,
arteries, veins, and capillaries)
ii Plant vascular system (phloem and xylem)
Candidates should be able to:
i. indicate the sources of the various classes of
food;
ii. relate the importance of each class;
iii. determine the importance of a balanced diet.
Candidates should be able to detect the presence
of the listed food items from the result of a given
experiment.
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe the structure of a typical mammalian
tooth;
ii. differentiate the types of mammalian tooth
and relate their structures to their functions.
iii. compare the dental formulae of man, sheep,
and dog.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate the structure of the various components of
the alimentary canal and its accessory organs
(liver, pancreas, and gall bladder) to their
functions.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the general characteristics of digestive
enzymes;
ii. associate enzymes with digestion of
carbohydrates, proteins and fats;
iii. determine the end products of these classes of
food.
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine the relationship between increase in size
and complexity and the need for the development
of a transport system.
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine the sources of materials and the forms
in which they are transported.
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe the general circulatory system;
ii. compare specific functions of the hepatic portal
vein, the pulmonary vein and artery, aorta, the
renal artery and vein
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the organs of the plant vascular system;
ii. compare the specific functions of the phloem
and xylem
Biology

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d. Media and processes of mechanism for
transportation.
4. Respiration
a. Respiratory organs and surfaces
b. The mechanism of gaseous exchange in:
i. Plants
ii. Mammals
c. Aerobic respiration
d. Anaerobic respiration
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify media of transportation (e.g. cytoplasm,
cell sap, body fluid, blood and lymph);
ii. determine the composition of blood and lymph;
iii. describe diffusion, osmosis, plasmolysis and
turgidity as mechanism of transportation in
organisms;
iv. compare the various mechanisms of open
circulatory systems, transpiration pull, root
pressure and active transport as mechanism
of transportation in plants.
Candidates should be able to:
i. examine the significance of respiration;
ii. describe the process of glycolysis;
iii. compare the similarities of the process in plants
and animals;
iv. deduce from an experimental set up, gaseous
exchange and products, exchange and
production of heat energy during respiration.
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe the following respiratory organs and
surfaces with organisms in which they occur;
body surface, gill, trachea, lungs, stomata and
lenticels;
ii. relate the characteristics of the respiratory
surfaces listed above to their functions.
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe the mechanism for the opening and
closing of the stomata;
ii. determine respiratory movements in these
animals.
Candidates should be able to:
iii. examine the role of oxygen in the liberation of
energy for the activities of the living organisms;
iv. deduce the effect of insufficient supply of
oxygen to the muscles.
Candidates should be able to:
i. use yeast cells and sugar solution to demonstrate
the process of fermentation;
ii. asses the economic importance of yeasts;

5.Excretion
a. Types of excretory structures:
contractile vacuole, flamecell,
nephridium, Malpighian tubule, kidney,
stoma and lenticel.
b. Excretory mechanisms:
i. Kidneys
ii. lungs
ii. skin
c. Excretory products of plants
6. Support and movement
a. Tropic, tactic, nastic and sleep
movements in plants
b. supporting tissues in animals
c. Types and functions of the skeleton
i. Exoskeleton
ii. Endoskeleton
iii. Functions of the skeleton in animals
Candidates should be able to:
i. Interpret the meaning and significance of excretion;
ii. identify the characteristics of each structure.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate the structure of the kidneys to the excretory
and osmo-regulatory functions.
. identify the functions and excretory products of
the lungs and the skin.
Candidates should be able to:
i. deduce the economic importance of the excretory
products of plants, carbon (IV) oxide, tannins, 
resins, gums, mucilage, alkaloids etc.
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine the need for support and movement in
organisms;
ii. identify supporting tissues in plants (collenchyma,
sclerenchyma, xylem and phloem fibres);
iii. describe the distribution of supporting tissues in
roots, stem, and leaf.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate the response of plants to the stimuli of light,
water, gravity and touch;
ii. identify the regions of growth in roots and shoots
and the roles of auxins in tropism.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate the location of chitin, cartilage and bone to
their supporting function;
ii. relate the structure and the general layout of the
mammalian skeleton to their supportive,
locomotive and respiratory function;
iii. differentiate types of joints using appropriate
examples.
Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the protective, supportive, locomotive and
respiratory functions of the skeleton to the
wellbeing of the animal;

7. Reproduction
a. A sexual reproduction
i. Fission as in Paramecium
ii. Budding as in yeast
iii. Natural vegetative propagation
iv. Artificial vegetative propagation.
b. sexual reproduction in flowering plants
i. Floral parts and their functions
ii. Pollination and fertilization
iii. products of sexual reproduction
c. Reproduction in mammals
i. structures and functions of the male
and female reproductive organs
ii. Fertilization and development.
(Fusion of gamates)
8. Growth
a. meaning fo grwoth
b. Germination of seeds and condition
necessary for germination of seeds.
9. Co-ordination and control
a. Nervous coordination:
i. the components, structure and functions
of the central nervous system;
ii. The components and functions of the
peripheral nervous systems;
iii. Mechanism of transmission of impulses;
iv. Reflex action
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between asexual and sexual
reproduction;
ii. apply natural vegetative propagation in crop
production and multiplication;
iii. apply grafting, budding and layering in
agricultural practices.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate parts of flower to their functions and
reproductive process;
ii. deduce the advantages of cross pollination;
iii. deduce the different types of placentation that
develop into simple, aggregate, multiple and
succulent fruits.
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between male and female
reproductive organs;
ii. relate their structure and function to
the production of offspring.
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe the fusion of gametes as a process of
fertilization;
ii. relate the effects of the mother’s health, nutrition
and indiscriminate use of drugs on the
developmental stages of the embryo up to birth.
Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the knowledge of the conditions necessary
for germination on plants growth;
ii. differentiate between epigeal and hypogeal
germination.
Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the knowledge of the structure and function
of the central nervous system in the coordination
of body functions in organisms;
ii. illustrate reflex actions such as blinking of the
eyes, knee jerk; etc.;
iii. differentiate between reflex and voluntary actions
as well as conditioned reflexes such as salivation,
riding a bicycle and swimming;

b. The sense organs
i. skin (tactile)
ii. nose (olfactory)
iii. tongue (taste)
iv. eye (sight)
v. ear (auditory)
c. Hormonal control
i. animal hormonal system
– Pituitary
– thyroid
– parathyroid
– adrenal gland
– pancreas
– gonads
ii. Plant hormones
(phytohormones)
d. Homeostasis
i. Body temperature regulation
ii. Salt and water regulation
Candidates should be able to:
i. associate the listed sense organs with their
functions;
ii. apply the knowledge of the structure and
functions of these sense organs in detecting an
correcting their defects.
Candidates should be able to:
i. locate the listed endocrine glands in animals;
ii. relate the hormone produced by each of these
glands to their functions.
Candidates should be able to:
i. examine the effects of various phytohormones (e.g.
auxins, gibberellin, cytokinin, and ethylene) on
growth, tropism, flowering, fruit ripening and leaf
abscission.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate the function of hormones to regulating the
levels of materials inside the body.

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1. Factors affecting the distribution of
Organisms
i. Abiotic
Candidates should be able to:
i. deduce the effects of temperature; rainfall, relative
humidity, wind speed and direction, altitude,
salinity, turbidity, pH and edaphic (soil) conditions
on the distribution of organisms.
ii. use appropriate equipment (e.g. sechi disc,
thermometer, rain gauge etc) to measure abiotic
factors.

ii. Biotic
2. Symbiotic interactions of plants
and animals
(a) Food chains, food webs and
trophic levels
(b) Energy flow in the ecosystem.
(c) Nutrient cycling in nature
i. carbon cycle
ii. water cycle
iii. Nitrogen cycle
3. Natural Habitats
(a) Aquatic (e.g. ponds, streams, lakes
seashores and mangrove swamps)
(b) Terrestrial/arboreal (e.g. tree-tops of oil palm,
abandoned farmland or a dry grassy (savanna)
field, and burrow or hole.
4. Local (Nigerian) Biomes)
a. Tropical rainforest
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe how the activities of
plants/animals (particularly human)
affect the distribution of organisms.
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine appropriate examples of
symbiosis, parasitism, saprophytism,
comensalism, mutualism, amensalism,
competition, predation and
cooperation among organisms;
ii. associate the distribution of organisms
with food chains and food webs in
particular habitats.
Candidates should be able to:
i. interpret the ecological pyramids of
numbers, biomass and energy.
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe the cycle and its significance
including the balance of atmospheric
oxygen and carbon (IV) oxide.
Candidates should be able to:
i. assess the effects of water cycle on other
nurtrient cycles.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate the roles of bacteria and leguminous plants in
the cycling of nitrogen.
Candidates should be able to:
i. associate plants and animals with each of these
habitats.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate adaptive features to the habitats in which an
organisms lives.
Candidates should be able to:
i. locate biomes to regions
ii. apply the knowledge of the features of the listed
local biomes in determining the characteristics of
different regions of Nigeria.

b. Guinea savanna (southern and
northern)
c. Sudan Savanna
d. Desert
e. Highlands of montane forests and
grasslands of the Obudu, Jos,
Mambilla Plateau.
5. The Ecology of Populations:
(a) Population density and
overcrowding.
(b) Factors affecting population sizes:
i. Biotic (e.g. food, pest, disease,
predation, competition, reproductive
ability).
ii. Abiotic (e.g. temperature, space, light,
rainfall, topography, pressure, pH,
etc.
c. Ecological succession
i. primary succession
ii. secondary succession
6. SOIL
a) (i) characteristics of different types
of soil (sandy, loamy, clayey)
i. soil structure
ii. porosity, capillarity and humus
content
iii. Components of the soil
i. inorganic
ii. organic
iii. soil organisms
b) Soil fertility:
i. loss of soil fertility
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine the reasons for rapid changes in human
population and the consequences of
overcrowding;
ii. compute/calculate density as the number of
organisms per unit area;
iii. apply modern methods to control human
population;
Candidates should be able to:
i. deduce the effect of these factors on the size of
population.
i. determine the interactions between biotic and
abiotic factors, e.g. drought or scarcity of water
which leads to food shortage and lack of space
which causes increase in disease rates;
Candidates should be able to:
i. trace the sequence in succession to the climax
stage of stability in plant population.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify physical properties of different soil types
based on simple measurement of particle size,
porosity or water retention ability;
ii. determine the amounts of air, water, humus and
capillarity in different soil types experimentally.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate soil characteristics, types and components to
the healthy growth of plant.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate such factors as loss of inorganic matter,
compaction, leaching, erosion of the top soil and
repeated cropping with one variety.

ii. Renewal and maintenance of soil
fertility
7. Humans and Environment
(a) Diseases:
(i) Common and endemic diseases.
ii. Easily transmissible diseases and disease
syndrome such as:
– poliomyelitis
– cholera
– tuberculosis
– sexually transmitted disease/syndrome
(gonorrhea, syphilis, AIDS, etc.
b. Pollution and its control
(i) sources, types, effects and methods of
control.
(ii) Sanitation and sewage
Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the knowledge of the practice of contour
ridging, terracing, mulching, poly-cropping,
strip-cropping, use of organic and inorganic
fertilizers, crop rotation, shifting cultivation, etc
to enhance soil conservation.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify ecological conditions that favour the
spread of common endemic and potentially
epidemic disease e.g. malaria, meningitis,
drancunculiasis, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis,
typhoid fever and cholera etc.;
ii. relate the biology of the vector or agent of each
disease with its spread and control;
Candidates should be able to:
i. use the knowledge of the causative organisms,
mode of transmission and symptoms of the listed
diseases to their prevention/treatment/control.
ii. apply the principles of inoculation and
vaccination on disease prevention.
Candidates should be able to:
i. categorize pollution into air, water and soil
pollution;
ii. relate the effects of common pollutants to human
health and environmental degradation;
iii. determine the methods by which each pollutant
may be controlled.
Candidates should be able to:
i. examine the importance of sanitation with
emphasis on sewage disposal, community health
and personal hygiene;
ii assess the roles and functions of international and
national health agencies (e.g. World Health
Organization (WHO), United Nations
International Children Emergency Fund
(UNICEF), International Red Cross Society
(IRCS), and the ministries of health and
environment.

(c) Conservation of Natural Resources
(I) Variation In Population
a. Morphological variations in the
physical appearance of individuals.
(i) size (height, weight)
(ii) Colour (skin, eye, hair, coat of animals,
scales and feathers.
(iii) Fingerprints
b. Physiological variation
(i) Ability to roll tongue
(ii) Ability to taste
phenylthiocarbamide
(PTC)
(iii) Blood groups
Candidates should be able to:
(i) apply the various methods of conservation of
both the renewable and non-renewable natural
resources for the protection of our environment
for present and future generations;
(ii) outline the benefits of conserving natural
resources;
(iii) identify the bodies responsible for the
conservation of resources at the national and
international levels (e.g. Nigerian Conservation
Foundation (NCF), Federal Ministry of
Environment, Nigeria National Parks, World
Wildlife Foundation (WWF), International
Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN),
United Nations Environmental Programme
(UNEP) and their activities;
(iv) asses their activities.

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Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between continuous and
discontinuous variations with examples;
ii. relate the role of environmental
conditions, habitat and the genetic
constitution to variation.
Candidates should be able to:
i) measure heights and weight of pupils of
the same age group;
ii) plot graphs of frequency distribution
of the heights and weights.
Candidates should be able to:
i) observe and record various colour
patterns in some plants and mammals.
Candidates should be able to:
i) apply classification of fingerprints in
identity detection.
Candidates should be able to:
i) identify some specific examples of
physiological variation among human
population;
ii) categorize people according to their
physiological variation.

b. Application of discontinuous
variation in crime detection,
blood transfusion and
determination of paternity.
2. Heredity
a) Inheritance of characters in
organisms;
i) Heritable and non-heritable
characters.
b) Chromosomes – the basis of
heredity;
(i) Structure
(ii) Process of transmission of
hereditary characters from
parents to offspring.
c) Probability in genetics and sex
determination.
a) Application of the principles of
heredity in:

i) Agriculture
(ii) Medicine
Candidates should be able to:
i) apply the knowledge of blood groups in
blood transfusion and determination of
paternity;
ii) use discontinuous variation in crime
detection.
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine heritable and non-heritable
characters with examples.
Candidates should be able to:
i. illustrate simple structure of DNA
Candidates should be able to:
i. illustrate segregation of genes at meiosis
and recombination of genes at fertilization
to account for the process of transmission
of characters from parents to offsprings.
Candidates should be able to:
i) deduce that segregation of genes occurs
during gamete formation and that
recombination of genes at fertilization is
random in nature.
Candidates should be able to:
i. analyze data on cross-breeding
experiments;
ii. apply the principles of heredity in the
production of new varieties of crops and
livestock through cross-breeding;
iii. deduce advantages and disadvantages
of out-breeding and in-breeding;
iv. analyze elementarily the contentious
issues of genetically modified
organisms (GMO) and gene therapy.
Candidates should be able to:
i) apply the knowledge of heredity in
marriage counselling with particular
reference to blood grouping, sickle-cell
anaemia and the Rhesus factors.

b. Sex – linked characters e.g. baldness,
haemophilia, colour blindness, etc.
ii) examine the significance of using
recombinant DNA materials in the
production of important medical
products such as isulin, interferon and
enzymes.
Candidates should be able to:
i) identify characters that are sex linked.

Adaptation for survival:
a) Factors that bring about competition.
b) Intra and inter-specific competition
c) Relationship between competition and
succession.
2) Structural adaptations in organisms
Candidates should be able to:
i) relate increase in population, diseases,
shortage of food and space with intra-
and inter-specific competition.
Candidates should be able to:
i) determine niche differentiation as a
means of reducing intra-specific
competition.
Candidates should be able to:
i) relate competition to succession.
Candidates should be able to account for adaptation
in organisms with respect to the following:
i) obtaining food (beaks and legs of birds;
mouthparts of insects, especially mosquito,
butterfly and moth.)
ii) protection and defence (stick insects, praying
mantis and toad.
iii) securing mates (redhead male and female Agama
lizards, display of feathers by birds).
iv. regulating body temperature (skin, feathers and
hairs).
v. conserving water (spines in plants and scales in
mammals).

Adaptive colouration and its functions
4) Behavioural adaptations in social animals
5. Theories of evolution
i) Lamarck’s theory
ii) Darwin’s theory
6. Evidence of evolution
Candidates should be able to:
i. categorize countershading in fish, toads and
snakes and warning colouration in mushrooms.
Candidates should be able to:
i.) differentiate various castes in social insects like
termites and their functions in their colony/hive;
ii.) account for basking in lizards, territorial
behaviour of other animals under unfavourable
conditions (hibernation and aestivation).
Candidates should be able to:
i.) relate organic evolution as the sum total of all
adaptive changes that have taken place over a
long period of time resulting in the diversity of
forms, structure and functions among organisms.
ii.) examine the contributions of
Lamarck and Darwin to the theory
of evolution.
Candidates should be able to:
i.) provide evidences for evolution such
as fossil records, comparative
anatomy, physiology and embryology;
ii.) trace evolutionary trends in plants
and animals;
iii.) provide evidence for modern
evolutionary theories such as genetic
studies and the role of mutation.

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