Neco Marketing Answers 2022

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Neco Marketing Answers 2022

Here is the neco marketing answers 2022

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Marketing Obj:

01-10 : EDBAEEABEC

11-20 : CBBEDBAEEB

21-30 : BCBCECCCBC

31-40 : BAABDDBAAE

41-50 : BDAAAAEDCA

51-60 : DEAEBCADDE

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Neco Marketing theory

(6)
(i) Intensive Distribution: In intensive distribution, the product is sold to as many appropriate retailers or wholesalers as possible. Intensive distribution is appropriate for products such as chewing gum, candy bars, soft drinks, bread, film and cigarettes where the primary factor influencing the purchase decision is convenience.

(ii) Selective Distribution: In Selective Distribution, the number of outlets that may carry a product is limited, but not to the extent of exclusive dealing. Selective Distribution may be used for product categories such as clothing, appliances, televisions etc.

(iii) Exclusive Distribution: When a single outlet is given an exclusive franchise to sell the product in a geographical area. Products such as special automobiles, some major appliances, certain brands of furniture.

(iv) Direct Channel of Distribution:

(v) Indirect Channel of Distribution:
*NECO MARKETING THEORY*

(4a)
Organizational markets are markets in which companies and individuals purchase goods for purposes other than personal consumption.

(4b)
(i) *PRODUCER MARKETS:* Producers buy goods and services and transform them into a sellable product, which they sell to their customers for the purpose of making a profit. Examples of producers are farmers, manufacturers and construction companies.

(ii) *RESELLER MARKET:* Resellers buy finished products and resell them to their customers for the purpose of making a profit. Resellers do not modify the products they buy. Resellers can be wholesalers who sell their products to other resellers or retailers who sell their products to end users.

(iii) *INSTITUTIONAL MARKET:* Institutions are non-government organizations that buy goods and services to support their internal operations. The function of institutions is to better their communities, not to make a profit. Examples of institutional markets are churches, hospitals, and colleges.

(iv) *GOVERNMENT MARKET:* Governments buy goods and services to support their internal operations; they do not transform the goods and services or resell them to make a profit. Government markets usually buy their goods through a bidding process and include federal, state, county, and local governments.

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(6)
(i) *INTENSIVE DISTRIBUTION:* In intensive distribution, the product is sold to as many appropriate retailers or wholesalers as possible. Intensive distribution is appropriate for products such as chewing gum, candy bars, soft drinks, bread, film and cigarettes where the primary factor influencing the purchase decision is convenience.

(ii) *SELECTIVE DISTRIBUTION:* In Selective Distribution, the number of outlets that may carry a product is limited, but not to the extent of exclusive dealing. Selective Distribution may be used for product categories such as clothing, appliances, televisions etc.

(iii) *EXCLUSIVE DISTRIBUTION:* When a single outlet is given an exclusive franchise to sell the product in a geographical area. Products such as special automobiles, some major appliances, certain brands of furniture.

(iv) Direct Channel of Distribution:

(v) Indirect Channel of Distribution:

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(8a)
Price is the sum or amount of money at which a thing is valued, or the value which a seller sets on his goods in the market; that for which something is bought or sold, or offered for sale; equivalent in money or other means of exchange; current value or rate paid or demanded in the market or barter; cost.

(8b)
*(CHOOSE ANY BEST 4)*
(i) Cost-plus Pricing.
(ii) Price Skimming.
(iii) Premium Pricing.
(iv) Penetration Pricing.
(v) Geographical Pricing.

See also  NECO PHYSICS PRACTICAL ANSWERS 2021

*(EXPLANATION)*

(i) *COST-PLUS PRICING:* This is the simplest pricing method. The firm calculates the cost of producing the product and adds a percentage (profit) to that price to give the selling price. The term cost-plus pricing is widely used in retaining, where the retailer wants to know with some certainty what the gross profit margin of each sale will be.

(ii) *PRICE SKIMMING:* Skimming involves setting a high price before other competitors come into the market. This is often used for the launch of a new product which faces little or no competition usually due to some technological features.

(iii) *PREMIUM PRICING:* Premium Pricing is the practice of keeping the price of a product or service artificially high in order to encourage favorable perceptions among buyers, based solely on the price.

(iv) *PENETRATION PRICING:* Penetration Pricing is when you set a relatively low initial entry price, hoping people will switch from a higher priced vendor.

(v) *GEOGRAPHICAL PRICING:* Geographical Pricing sees variations in price in different parts of the world. For example rarity value, or where transportation costs increase price. In some countries there is more tax on certain types that sometimes goods are mich cheaper or expensive.

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(9a)
Marketing Research is therefore the systematic gathering, recording and analyzing of data about problem relating to marketing of goods and services.

(9b)
*(CHOOSE ANY BEST 4)*
(i) Introduction of New Product or Service.
(ii) Customer Development.
(iii) Competition Analysis.
(iv) Marketing Advertising/Development.
(v) Customer Satisfaction.

(9c)
(i) *MARKET RESEARCH:* Identification of a specific market and measurement of its size and other characteristics.

(ii) *PRODUCT RESEARCH:* Identification of a need or want and the characteristics of the good of service that will satisfy it.

(iii) *CONSUMER RESEARCH:* Identification pf the preferences, motivations, and buying behaviour of the targeted customers.

(iv) *INFORMATION:* Information for marketing research is collected from direct observation of the customers (such as in retail stores), mail surveys, interviews etc.

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(5a)
International Marketing can be define as the exchange of goods and services across national borders to meet the requirements of the customers. It includes customer analysis in foreign countries and identifying the target market.

(5b)
(i) Market Selection Decision: Once a firm has decided to enter the international market, the next important marketing decision is market selection. As per company’s present product mix, production capacity, and proposed expansion strategy, it selects one or more countries to operate in. In the same way, it has to decide on type of foreign buyers to be served.

(ii) Market Entry Decision: A firm has selected international markets to operate in. Now, the next imperative marketing decision is market entry, i.e., how to enter the market; which of the options to be used for foreign market entry.

(iii) Organisation Decision:
Organisation for global marketing is an important decision. In order to implement, direct, and control international marketing efforts, a company must adopt an appropriate organization structure. The organisation is responsible to regulate foreign trade.

(iv) International Markets Decision: The first few important questions a firm has to answer are should a company go for international market? Why should a company prefer to enter global market? Does company capable to transact in international markets? Obviously, answers come from company’s current domestic market position and types of opportunities available in the foreign markets. When international markets seem to more attractive and the company is capable to exploit these markets, the company decides to enter the international markets.
*NECO MARKETING THEORY*

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(4a)
Organizational markets are markets in which companies and individuals purchase goods for purposes other than personal consumption.

(4b)
(i) *PRODUCER MARKETS:* Producers buy goods and services and transform them into a sellable product, which they sell to their customers for the purpose of making a profit. Examples of producers are farmers, manufacturers and construction companies.

(ii) *RESELLER MARKET:* Resellers buy finished products and resell them to their customers for the purpose of making a profit. Resellers do not modify the products they buy. Resellers can be wholesalers who sell their products to other resellers or retailers who sell their products to end users.

(iii) *INSTITUTIONAL MARKET:* Institutions are non-government organizations that buy goods and services to support their internal operations. The function of institutions is to better their communities, not to make a profit. Examples of institutional markets are churches, hospitals, and colleges.

(iv) *GOVERNMENT MARKET:* Governments buy goods and services to support their internal operations; they do not transform the goods and services or resell them to make a profit. Government markets usually buy their goods through a bidding process and include federal, state, county, and local governments.

*=======================*
*=======================*

(5a)
International Marketing can be define as the exchange of goods and services across national borders to meet the requirements of the customers. It includes customer analysis in foreign countries and identifying the target market.

(5b)
(i) *MARKET SELECTION DECISION:* Once a firm has decided to enter the international market, the next important marketing decision is market selection. As per company’s present product mix, production capacity, and proposed expansion strategy, it selects one or more countries to operate in. In the same way, it has to decide on type of foreign buyers to be served.

(ii) *MARKET ENTRY DECISION:* A firm has selected international markets to operate in. Now, the next imperative marketing decision is market entry, i.e., how to enter the market; which of the options to be used for foreign market entry.

(iii) *ORGANISATION DECISION:*
Organisation for global marketing is an important decision. In order to implement, direct, and control international marketing efforts, a company must adopt an appropriate organization structure. The organisation is responsible to regulate foreign trade.

(iv) *INTERNATIONAL MARKETS DECISION:* The first few important questions a firm has to answer are should a company go for international market? Why should a company prefer to enter global market? Does company capable to transact in international markets? Obviously, answers come from company’s current domestic market position and types of opportunities available in the foreign markets. When international markets seem to more attractive and the company is capable to exploit these markets, the company decides to enter the international markets.

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*=======================*

(6)
(i) *INTENSIVE DISTRIBUTION:* In intensive distribution, the product is sold to as many appropriate retailers or wholesalers as possible. Intensive distribution is appropriate for products such as chewing gum, candy bars, soft drinks, bread, film and cigarettes where the primary factor influencing the purchase decision is convenience.

(ii) *SELECTIVE DISTRIBUTION:* In Selective Distribution, the number of outlets that may carry a product is limited, but not to the extent of exclusive dealing. Selective Distribution may be used for product categories such as clothing, appliances, televisions etc.

(iii) *EXCLUSIVE DISTRIBUTION:* When a single outlet is given an exclusive franchise to sell the product in a geographical area. Products such as special automobiles, some major appliances, certain brands of furniture.

(iv) Direct Channel of Distribution:

(v) Indirect Channel of Distribution:

See also  NECO ENGLISH QUESTIONS 2020 CONFIRMED

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(8a)
Price is the sum or amount of money at which a thing is valued, or the value which a seller sets on his goods in the market; that for which something is bought or sold, or offered for sale; equivalent in money or other means of exchange; current value or rate paid or demanded in the market or barter; cost.

(8b)
*(CHOOSE ANY BEST 4)*
(i) Cost-plus Pricing.
(ii) Price Skimming.
(iii) Premium Pricing.
(iv) Penetration Pricing.
(v) Geographical Pricing.

*(EXPLANATION)*

(i) *COST-PLUS PRICING:* This is the simplest pricing method. The firm calculates the cost of producing the product and adds a percentage (profit) to that price to give the selling price. The term cost-plus pricing is widely used in retaining, where the retailer wants to know with some certainty what the gross profit margin of each sale will be.

(ii) *PRICE SKIMMING:* Skimming involves setting a high price before other competitors come into the market. This is often used for the launch of a new product which faces little or no competition usually due to some technological features.

(iii) *PREMIUM PRICING:* Premium Pricing is the practice of keeping the price of a product or service artificially high in order to encourage favorable perceptions among buyers, based solely on the price.

(iv) *PENETRATION PRICING:* Penetration Pricing is when you set a relatively low initial entry price, hoping people will switch from a higher priced vendor.

(v) *GEOGRAPHICAL PRICING:* Geographical Pricing sees variations in price in different parts of the world. For example rarity value, or where transportation costs increase price. In some countries there is more tax on certain types that sometimes goods are mich cheaper or expensive.

*=======================*
*=======================*

(9a)
Marketing Research is therefore the systematic gathering, recording and analyzing of data about problem relating to marketing of goods and services.

(9b)
*(CHOOSE ANY BEST 4)*
(i) Introduction of New Product or Service.
(ii) Customer Development.
(iii) Competition Analysis.
(iv) Marketing Advertising/Development.
(v) Customer Satisfaction.

(9c)
(i) *MARKET RESEARCH:* Identification of a specific market and measurement of its size and other characteristics.

(ii) *PRODUCT RESEARCH:* Identification of a need or want and the characteristics of the good of service that will satisfy it.

(iii) *CONSUMER RESEARCH:* Identification pf the preferences, motivations, and buying behaviour of the targeted customers.

(iv) *INFORMATION:* Information for marketing research is collected from direct observation of the customers (such as in retail stores), mail surveys, interviews etc.

*=======================*
*=======================*
(9a)
Marketing Research is therefore the systematic gathering, recording and analyzing of data about problem relating to marketing of goods and services.

(9b)
(CHOOSE ANY BEST 4)
(i) Introduction of New Product or Service.
(ii) Customer Development.
(iii) Competition Analysis.
(iv) Marketing Advertising/Development.
(v) Customer Satisfaction.

(9c)
(i) Market Research: Identification of a specific market and measurement of its size and other characteristics.

(ii) Product Research: Identification of a need or want and the characteristics of the good of service that will satisfy it.

(iii) Consumer Research: Identification pf the preferences, motivations, and buying behaviour of the targeted customers.

(iv) Information: Information for marketing research is collected from direct observation of the customers (such as in retail stores), mail surveys, interviews etc.

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