(i) The Fold Unit System

(ii) The Deep Litter System

(iii) The Battery Cage System


The Fold Unit System:


(i) The chickens are protected from predators

(ii) It is easier to control diseases under this system.

(iii) Proper breeding control is possible


(i) The system involves more work than the free range system because the units or folds in which the chickens are kept have to be moved from place to place daily.

(ii) It is more expensive then the free range system.  The units have to be constructed using timber and fencing materials and must be maintained.

(iii) The birds will require more additional feed than with the free range system to achieve good production.


The Deep Litter System:


(i) Chickens are protected from predators and pests.

(ii) Many birds can be kept under this system- as many as 8 to 10 broilers or 5 to 6 layers per square metre of floor space.

(iii) Chickens are protected from harsh weather conditions all year round


(i) Litter may not always be readily available, especially in the rural areas during dry seasons

(ii) It is expensive to build the poultry house, compared to the fold unit or free range system where no houses are built.

(iii) There is a greater chance of problems, such as cannibalism, egg eating or feather pecking than in the free range system.


The Battery Cage System:


(i) Many hens can be kept on a small piece of land

(ii) It is easy to cull hens which do not lay enough eggs especially if each hen has its own cage.

(iii) Hens do not waste energy running around.


(i) The eggs which are collected cannot be used for producing chicks because the hens are not fertilised by male.

(ii) It is expensive to purchase the cages and build the house.  The same type of building is used as in the deep litter system.

(iii) The risk of disease outbreaks is very high because the birds are concentrated in a very small area and are very close together.



(i) Wool

(ii) Skins

(iii) meat

(iv) Faeces


Pseudopregnancy (false pregnancy) is a condition in which a doe seems to be pregnant but is not. This can result from a sterile mating or from physical stimulation, such as being mounted by another rabbit, which causes a physiological response in the doe, resembling pregnancy.


The rabbit is a pseudo-ruminant because its digestive system has only three compartments in the stomach, it does not chew the cud or have a rumen, but it does depend on bacterial digestion of cellulose for much of its nutrition.


(i) Bright and dry eyes.

(ii) A healthy appetite.

(iii) Dry front paws

(iv) Strong and good set of teeth.

(v) A healthy coat.

(vi) Nice damp nose


Coprophagy in rabbits is a behavior where rabbit reingests its own excreted faeces including eating faeces of other species, of other individuals, those once deposited or taken directly from the anus.

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