Map Reading

NO 1 LOADING…………………….



*(NUMBER 3)*



(i)Sedimentary rocks are formed of sediments derived from the older rocks, plant and animal remains and thus these rocks contain fossils of plants and animals. The age of the formation of a given sedimen­tary rock may be determined on the basis of the analysis of the fossils to be found in that rock.

(ii)Sedimentary rocks are found over the largest surface area of the globe. It is believed that about 75 per cent of the surface area of the globe is covered by sedimentary rocks. it’s obvious that the sedi­mentary rocks are important for extent, not for depth in the earth’s crust.

(iii)The deposition of sediments of various types and sizes to form sedimentary rocks takes place in certain sequence and system. The size of sediments decreases from the littoral margins to the centre of the water bodies or sedimentation basins. Different sediments are consolidated and compacted by different types of cementing elements e.g silica, iron etc

(iv)Layers of sedimentary rocks are seldom found in original and horizontal manner. Sedimentary layers are generally deformed due to lateral compressive and tensile forces. The beds are folded and found in anticlinal and synclinal forms. Tensile and compressive forces also create faults due to dislocation of beds.



(i)Igneous rocks are roughly hard rocks and water percolates with great difficulty along the joints. Sometimes the rocks become so soft, due to their exposure to environmental conditions for longer duration, that they can be easily dug out by a spade (eg basalt).

(ii)Igneous rocks are granular or crystalline rocks but there are much variations in the size, form and texture of grains because these properties largely depend upon the rate and place of cooling and solidification of magmas or lavas. For example, when the lavas are quickly cooled down and solidified at the surface of the earth, there is no sufficient time for the development of grains/crystals.

(iii)Igneous rocks do not have strata like sedimentary rocks. When lava flows in a region occur in several phases, layers after layers of lavas are deposited and solidified one upon another and thus there is some sort of confusion about the layers or strata but actually these are not strata rather these are layers of lavas.

(iv)Since water does not penetrate the rocks easily and hence igneous rocks are less affected by chemical weathering but basalts are very easily weathered and eroded away when they come in constant touch with water. Coarse grained igneous rocks are affected by mechanical or physical weathering and thus the rocks are easily disintegrated and decomposed.


(i)Metamorphic rocks like Slate,marble are mineral/raw material for industries. marble derived from metamorphic rock is used for manufacturing glasses.

(ii)Metamorphic rock  such as marble are beautiful rock that can be polished as ornaments for decorating our houses,churches,mosques and tomb stones.

(iii)Metamorphic rocks like graphite and marble provide foreign exchange earnings.

(iv)Metamorphic rock like Marble is a beautiful rock that is commonly used for buildings. Many of the great statues of the Renaissance were carved from marble.

*(Number  4)*


Climate change is defined as a change in the statistical properties of the climatic system when considered over long periods of time. In order words,climatic change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather pattern over periods ranging from decades to millions of years.


*(Choose Any four)*

(i)Melting of ice caps: As a result of global warming ,the polar ice sheets have started to melt and glaciers around the world are shrinking.

(ii)Increasing temperature: As a result of the depletion of the ozone layers,the earth is now receiving direct rays of the sun and this has resulted in the continuous increase in the temperature of the environment.

(iii)High rainfall: The changes in the temperatures and other weather conditions of the environment have resulted in heavy rain which is now causing serious flooding in most parts of the world.

(iv)Submergence of coastal cities: The ever increasing rainfall, the melting of ice and glaciers etc have resulted in increase in the level of the water in the ocean which will led to the rise in the sea level

(v)Cancer and eye cataract: Extreme weather conditions due to climatic changes have effected the health of the people . such extreme weather Conditions have resulted into cancer and eye cataract in human being.

(vi)Desertification: Extreme weather conditions resulting from low rainfall and high winds are now causing desertification in regions that are close to the desert which led to desert encroachment of those regions.


*(Choose Any Three)*

(i)Reforestation: Reforestation is a deliberate effort made by the government in planting trees around the habitation of human being .It helps to increase the availability of oxygen which is not only useful for respiration but also useful in the purification of the air and provision of shade in the environment.

(ii)Zero carbon emission: Deliberate efforts should be made by the government to make sure that every little carbon is emitted into the atmosphere. The reduction in the quantity of carbon emission will reduce the effect of climatic change.

(iii)Education: Climate change should be taught in varies level of our academic activities so that awareness will be made known to people as well as educating people on the damaged of climatic change and how to control them.

(iv)Stop the use of aerosols : The use of aerosol by companies and other commercial activities should be stopped. This gas when released into the atmosphere can cause climatic change.


(Attend only one question)

*(Number 5)*


Geo referencing is defined as the process of scaling ,rotating and translating an image to match a particular size and position. It is related to assigning coordinates to points on the image of known object. It also involves the scanning of maps,aerial photographs and satellite images and drafting with the aid of a computer.


*(Choose Any Four)*

(i)It serves as point of references: Using Geo Referencing methods,data obtained from surveying tools like total stations may be given a point of reference from topographic maps already available

(ii)It assists in Air Travels: Geo Referencing is also useful in air travels as it helps in determining the position and direction of places.

(iii)Provision of support for raster data: Geo Referencing also provides support for the raster data format that is a geo referenced grid or Numbers that can be used as reference.

(iv)Determination of map orientation: Geo Referencing is also used to determine the scale and orientation of a map.

(v)Determination of actual location of places : Geo Referencing also helps to determine the actual location of a place.

(vi)Making of Aerial and satellite imagery: Geo Referencing is crucial to making aerial and satellite imagery  usually raster images,useful for mapping as it explains how other date relate to the imagery.


(i)Frame the project: This steps seems straightforward because typically you are assigned a project to obtain  a specific information. Some projects involve answering several questions derived from a high level question.

(ii)Explore and prepare Data: This step can be the most consuming . If you don’t have all the data needed for analysis project,you must collect it.

(iii) explore data: For each dataset,explore the feature geography, attributes and metadata to determine whether the data will be useful for your analysis and what kind of preparation, if any,may be required. Question to ask about the data include: what is the data format? When was the data collected?.

(iv) Choose Analysis Methods and Too

ls: To choose the appropriate methods and tools for an analysis project,consider the questions framed in step 1 and document the methods and tools that will answer each one.

(v) Perform the Analysis: If you have diagrammed the process in step 3,then in this step,you simply follow the diagram,completing each task in sequence . For complicated analysis,you may want to create a model in ModelBuilder to automate the process.

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