Chemistry Jamb Syllabus 2022

Chemistry Jamb Syllabus 2022

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Chemistry is to
prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the
course objectives, which are to:
(i) apply the basic principles governing scientific methods in new situations;
(ii) interpret scientific data;
(iii) deduce the relationships between chemistry and other sciences;
(iv) apply the knowledge of chemistry to industry and everyday life.

1. Separation of mixtures and
purification of chemical
substances
(a) Pure and impure substances
(b) Boiling and melting points.
(c) Elements, compounds and mixtures
(d) Chemical and physical changes.
(e) Separation processes:
evaporation, simple and fractional distillation,
sublimation, filtration, crystallization, paper
and column chromatography, simple and
fractional crystallization.
2. Chemical combination
Stoichiometry, laws of definite and multiple
proportions, law of conservation of matter,
Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes,
Avogadro’s law; chemical symbols, formulae,
equations and their uses, relative atomic mass
based on 12C=12, the mole concept and
Avogadro’s number.
Kinetic theory of matter and Gas Laws
(a) An outline of the kinetic theory of matter,
melting, vapourization and reverse processes;
melting and boiling explained in terms of
molecular motion and Brownian movement.
Candidates should be able to:
i) distinguish between pure and impure
substances;
ii) use boiling and melting points as criteria for
purity of chemical substances;
(iii) distinguish between elements, compounds and
mixture;
(iv) differentiate between chemical and physical
changes;
(v) identify the properties of the components of a
mixture;
(vi) specify the principle involved in each separation
method.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) perform simple calculations involving formulae,
equations/chemical composition and the mole
concept;
(ii) deduce the chemical laws from given
expressions/statements;
(iii) interpret data based on these laws;
(iv) interpret graphical representations related
to these laws.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) apply the theory to distinguish between solids,
liquids and gases;
(ii) deduce reasons for the change of state;
(iii) draw inferences based on the molecular motion;

(b) The laws of Boyle, Charles, Graham and
Dalton (law of partial pressure); combined
gas law, molar volume and atomicity of gases.
4. Atomic structure and bonding
(a) (i)The concept of atoms, molecules and ions,
the works of Dalton, Millikan, Rutherford,
Mosely, Thompson and Bohr. Simple
hydrogen spectrum, Ionization of gases
illustrating the electron as fundamental
particle of matter.
(ii) Atomic structure, electron configuration,
atomic number, mass number and isotopes;
specific examples should be drawn from
elements of atomic number 1 to 20. Shapes
of s and p orbitals.
(b) The periodic table and periodicity of
elements, presentation of the periodic table
with a view to recognizing families of
elements e.g. alkali metals, halogens, the
noble gases and transition metals. The
variation of the following properties should
be noticed: ionization energy, ionic radii,
electron affinity and electronegativity.
(c) Chemical bonding.
Electrovalency and covalency, the electron
configuration of elements and their tendency
to attain the noble gas structure. Hydrogen
bonding and metallic bonding as special
types of electrovalency and covalency
respectively; coordinate bond as a type
of covalent bond as illustrated by complexes
like [Fe(CN)6]
3-, [Fe(CN)6]
4-, [Cu(NH3)4]
2+
and [Ag(NH3)2]
+
; van der Waals’ forces
should be mentioned as a special type of
bonding forces.
(d) Shapes of simple molecules: linear ((H2, 02,
C12,HCI and CO2), non-linear (H2O) and
tetrahedral; (CH4)
(iv) deduce chemical laws form given expressions/
statements;
(v) interpret graphical representations related to
these laws;
(vi) perform simple calculations based on these laws
and the relationship between the vapour density
of gases and the relative molecular mass.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) distinguish between atom, molecules and ions;
(ii) assess the contributions of these scientists to
the development of the atomic structure;
(iii) deduce the number of protons, neutrons and
electrons from atomic and mass numbers of
an atom;
(iv) apply the rules guiding the arrangement of
electrons in an atom;
(v) relate isotopy to mass number;
(vi) perform simple calculations on relative
atomic mass
(vii) determine the number of electrons in s and
p atomic orbitals.
(viii) relate atomic number to the position of an
element on the periodic table;
(ix) relate properties of groups of elements on the
periodic table;
(x) identify reasons for variation in properties
across the period.
(xi) differentiate between the different types
of bonding.
(xii) deduce bond types based on electron
configurations;
(xiii) relate the nature of bonding to properties
of compounds;
(xiv) apply it in everyday chemistry;
(xv) differentiate between the various shapes
of molecules

(b) Nuclear Chemistry:
(i) Radioactivity
(elementary treatment only)
(ii) Nuclear reactions. Simple
equations, uses and
applications of natural and
artificial radioactivity.
5. Air
The usual gaseous constituents
– nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour, carbon
(IV) oxide and the noble
gases (argon and neon), proportion
of oxygen in the air e.g. by burning
phosphorus or by using alkaline pyrogallol,
air as a mixture and some uses of the noble
gas.
6. Water
Composition by volume:
Water as a solvent, atmospheric
gases dissolved in water and their biological
significance. Water as a product of the
combustion of hydrogen.
Hard and soft water:
Temporary and permanent
hardness and methods of softening
hard water. Purification of town
water supplies. Water of
crystallization, efflorescence,
deliquescence and hygroscopy.
Examples of the substances exhibiting these
properties and their uses.
7. Solubility
(a) Unsaturated, saturated
and supersaturated solutions.
Solubility curves and simple
deductions from them,
(solubility defined in terms of
mole per dm3
) and simple
calculations.
xvi) distinguish between ordinary chemical
reaction and nuclear reaction;
(xvii) differentiate between natural and
artificial radioactivity;
(xviii) compare the properties of the different
types of nuclear radiations;
(xix) compute simple calculations on the
half-life of a radioactive material;
(xx) balance simple nuclear equation;
(xxi) identify the various applications of
radioactivity.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) deduce reason (s) for the existence of
air as a mixture;
(ii) identify the principle involved in the
separation of air components;
(iii) deduce reasons for the variation in the
composition of air in the environment;
(iv) specify the uses of some of the
constituents of air.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the various uses of water;
(ii) distinguish between the properties of hard and
soft water;
(iii) determine the causes of hardness;
(iv) identify methods of removal of hardness;
(v) describe the processes involved in the
purification of water for town supply;
(vi) distinguish between these phenomena;
(vii) identify the various compounds that exhibit
these phenomena.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) distinguish between the different types of
solutions;
(ii) interpret solubility curves;
(iii) calculate the amount of solute that can
dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a
given temperature;
(iv) deduce that solubility is temperature-dependent;
Chemistry

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(b) Solvents for fats, oil and paints
and the use of such solvents
for the removal of stains.
(c) Suspensions and colloids:
Harmattan haze and paints as
examples of suspensions and
fog, milk, aerosol spray and
rubber solution as examples
of colloids.
8. Environmental Pollution
(a) Sources and effects of pollutants.
(b) Air pollution:
Examples of air pollutants such as
H2S, CO, SO2, oxides of nitrogen,
fluorocarbons and dust.
(c) Water pollution
Sewage and oil pollution should be
known.
(d) Soil pollution:
Oil spillage, Biodegradable and
non-biodegradable pollutants.
9. Acids, bases and salts
(a) General characteristics and properties of
acids, bases and salts. Acids/base indicators,
basicity of acids, normal, acidic, basic and
double salts. An acid defined as a substance
whose aqueous solution furnishes H3O
+
ions
or as a proton donor. Ethanoic, citric and
tartaric acids as examples of naturally
occurring organic acids, alums as examples
of double salts, preparation of salts by
neutralization, precipitation and action of
acids on metals. Oxides and
trioxocarbonate (IV) salts
(b) Qualitative comparison of the
conductances of molar solutions of
strong and weak acids and bases,
relationship between conductance,
amount of ions present and their relative
mobilities.
(v) classify solvents based on their uses;
(vi) differentiate between a true solution,
suspension and colloids;
(vii) compare the properties of a true solution
and a ‘false’ solution.
(viii) provide typical examples of suspensions
and colloids.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the different types of pollution and
pollutants;
(ii) classify pollutants as biodegradable and
non-biodegradable;
(iii) assess the effects of pollution on the
environment;
(iv) recommend measures for control of
environment pollution.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) distinguish between the properties of
acids and bases;
(ii) identify the different types of acids
and bases;
(iii) differentiate between acidity and
alkalinity using acid/base indicators;
(iv) identify the various methods of
preparation of salts;
(v) classify different types of salts;
vi) relate degree of dissociation to strength
of acids and bases;
(vii) relate degree of dissociation to
conductance;

(c) pH and pOH scale.
pH defined as – log[H3O
+
]
(d) Acid/base titrations.
(e) Hydrolysis of salts:
Simple examples such as
NH4C1, AICI3, Na2CO3, CH3COONa to be
mentioned
10. Oxidation and reduction
(a) Oxidation in terms of the
addition of oxygen or removal
of hydrogen.
(b) Reduction as removal of oxygen
or addition of hydrogen.
(c) Oxidation and reduction in terms
of electron transfer.
(d) Use of oxidation numbers.
Oxidation and reduction treated
as change in oxidation.
number and use of oxidation numbers
in balancing simple equations.
IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic
compounds.
(e) Tests for oxidizing and reducing
agents.
11. Electrolysis
(a) Electrolytes and non-electrolytes.
Faraday’s laws of electrolysis.
(b) Electrolysis of dilute H2SO4,
aqueous CuSO4, CuC12 solution, dilute
and concentrated NaC1 solutions and fused
NaC1 and factors affecting discharge
of ions at the electrodes.
(viii) perform simple calculations on pH;
(ix) identify the appropriate acid-base
indicator;
(x) interpret graphical representation of
titration curves;
(xi) perform simple calculations based on
the mole concept;
(xii) balance equations for the hydrolysis
of salts;
(xiii) deduce the properties (acidic, basic,
neutral) of the resultant solution.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the various forms of expressing
oxidation and reduction;
(ii) classify chemical reactions in terms of
oxidation or reduction;
(iii) balance redox reaction equations;
(iv) deduce the oxidation number of chemical
species;
(v) compute the number of electron transfer
in redox reactions;
(vi) identify the name of redox species using
IUPAC nomenclature.
(vii) distinguish between oxidizing and reducing
agents in redox reactions.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify between electrolytes and non-
electrolytes;
(ii) perform calculations based on faraday as a
mole of electrons.
(iii) identify suitable electrodes for different
electrolytes.
(iv) specify the chemical reactions at the
electrodes;
(v) determine the products at the electrodes;
(vi) identify the factors that affect the product
of electrolysis;

(c) Uses of electrolysis:
Purification of metals e.g.
copper and production of
elements and compounds
e.g. A1, Na, O2, Cl2 and NaOH.
(d) Electrochemical cells:
Redox series (K, Na, Ca, Mg,
AI, Zn, Fe, PbII, H, Cu, Hg, Au,)
half-cell reactions and electrode potentials.
Simple calculations only.
(e) Corrosion as an electrolytic process,
cathodic protection of metals,
painting, electroplating and coating
with grease or oil as ways of
preventing iron from corrosion.
12. Energy changes
(a) Energy changes(∆H) accompanying physical
and chemical changes:
dissolution of substances in or
reaction with water e.g. Na, NaOH,
K, NH4, Cl. Endothermic (+∆H) and
exothermic (-∆H) reactions.
(b) Entropy as an order-disorder
phenomenon: simple illustrations
like mixing of gases and dissolution
of salts.
(c) Spontaneity of reactions:
∆G

= 0 as a criterion for
equilibrium, ∆G greater or
less than zero as a criterion for
non-spontaneity or spontaneity.
13. Rates of Chemical Reaction
(a) Elementary treatment of the following factors
which can change the rate of a chemical
reaction:
(i) Temperature e.g. the reaction between HCI
and Na2S2O3 or Mg and HCI
(vii) specify the different areas of application of
electrolysis;
(viii) identify the various electrochemical cells;
(ix) calculate electrode potentials using half-
cell reaction equations;
(x) determine the different areas of
applications of electrolytic processes;
(XI) apply the methods to protect metals.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) determine the types of heat changes
(∆H) in physical and chemical processes;
(ii) interpret graphical representations of heat
changes;
(iii) relate the physical state of a substance
to the degree of orderliness;
(iv) determine the conditions for spontaneity
of a reaction ;
(v) relate (∆H), ∆S

and ∆G

as the driving
forces for chemical reactions;
(vi) solve simple problems based on the
relationships ∆G

= ∆H

-T∆S

)
Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the factors that affect the rates of a
chemical reaction;
(ii) determine the effects of these factors on
the rate of reactions;
(iii) recommend ways of moderating these effects;

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(ii) Concentration e.g. the reaction between HCl
and Na2S2O3, HCl and marble and the iodine
clock reaction, for gaseous systems, pressure
may be used as concentration term.
(iii) Surface area e.g. the reaction
between marble and HCI with
marble in
(i) powdered form
(ii) lumps of the same mass.
(iv) Catalyst e.g. the decomposition
of H2O2 or KCIO3 in the
presence or absence of MnO2
(b) Concentration/time curves.
(c) Activation energy
Qualitative treatment of Arrhenius’ law and
the collision theory, effect of
light on some reactions. e.g. halogenation of
alkanes
14. Chemical equilibra
Reversible reactions and factors governing the
equilibrium position. Dynamic equilibrium. Le
Chatelier’s principle and equilibrium constant.
Simple examples to include action of steam on
iron and N2O4
  2NO2.
No calculation will be required.
15. Non-metals and their compounds
(a) Hydrogen: commercial production from
water gas and cracking of petroleum
fractions, laboratory preparation,
properties, uses and test for hydrogen.
(b) Halogens: Chlorine as a representative
element of the halogen. Laboratory
preparation, industrial preparation by
electrolysis, properties and uses, e.g. water
sterilization, bleaching, manufacture of
HC1, plastics and insecticides.
iv) examine the effect of concentration on the
rate of a chemical reaction;
(v) describe how the rate of a chemical
reaction is affected by surface area;
(vi) determine the types of catalysts suitable for
different reactions.
(vii) interpret reaction rate curves;
(viii) solve simple problems on the rate
of reactions;
(x) relate the rate of reaction to the kinetic
theory of matter.
(xi) examine the significance of activation
energy to chemical reactions.
(xi) deduce the value of activation energy
(Ea) from reaction rate curves.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the factors that affects the position
of equilibrium of a chemical reaction;
(ii) predict the effects of each factor on the
position of equilibrium.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) predict reagents for the laboratory and
industrial preparation of these gases and
their compounds.
(ii) identify the properties of the gases and their
compounds.
(iii) compare the properties of these gases and
their compounds.
(iv) specify the uses of each gas and its
compounds;
(v) determine the specific test for each gas and its
compounds.
(vi) determine specific tests for Cl, SO4
2-
,
S2, NH4
4+, NO3

, CO3
2-
.
Chemistry



  
  

Hydrochloric acid preparation and properties.
Chlorides and test for chlorides.
(c) Oxygen and Sulphur
(i) Oxygen:
Laboratory preparation, properties and uses.
Commercial production from liquid air.
Oxides: Acidic,basic, amphoteric and neutral,
trioxygen (ozone) as an allotrope and the
importance of ozone in the atmosphere.
(ii) Sulphur:
Uses and allotropes:
preparation of allotropes is not expected .
Preparation, properties and uses of sulphur (IV)
oxide, the reaction of SO2 with alkalis.
Trioxosulphate (IV) acid and its salts, the
effect of acids on salts of trioxosulphate (IV),
Tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid: Commercial
preparation (contact process only), properties as
a dilute acid, an oxidizing and a dehydrating
agent and uses. Test for SO4
2-
.
Hydrogen sulphide: Preparation and Properties
as a weak acid, reducing agent and precipitating
agent. Test for S2-
(d) Nitrogen:
(i) Laboratory preparation
(ii) Production from liquid air
(iii) Ammonia:
Laboratory and industrial
preparations (Haber Process only),
properties and uses, ammonium salts
and their uses, oxidation of
ammonia to nitrogen (IV)
oxide and trioxonitrate (V)
acid.
Test NH4
+
(iv) Trioxonitrate (V) acid:
Laboratory preparation
from ammonia;
properties and uses. Trioxonitrate (V) salt-
action of heat and uses. Test for NO3

(v) Oxides of nitrogen:
Properties.
(vii) identify the allotrope oxygen;
(viii) determine the significance of ozone to
our environment.
(ix) identify the allotropes of sulphur and their
uses;
(x) specify the commercial preparation of
the acid, its properties and uses;
(xi) predicts reagents for the laboratory Preparation
for the gas;
(xii) specify the laboratory and industrial
preparation for the gas;
(xiii) use Haber process for the industrial
preparation of ammonia;
(xiv) identify reagents for the laboratory preparation
of the acid, its properties and uses;

The nitrogen cycle.
(e) Carbon:
(i) Allotropes: Uses and
properties
(ii) Carbon (IV) oxide-
Laboratory preparation, properties
and uses. Action of heat on
trioxocarbonate
(IV) salts and test for CO3
2-
(iii) Carbon (II) oxide:
Laboratory preparation, properties
including its effect on blood;
sources of carbon (II) oxide to
include charcoal, fire and exhaust
fumes.
(iv) Coal: Different types, products
obtained form destructive
distillation of wood and coal.
(v) Coke: Gasification and uses.
Manufacture of synthetic gas and
uses.
16. Metals and their compounds
(a) Alkali metals e.g. sodium
(i) Sodium hydroxide:-
Production by electrolysis of
brine, its action on aluminium, zinc and
lead ions.
Uses including precipitation of
metallic hydroxides.
(ii) Sodium trioxocarbonate (IV)
and sodium hydrogen trioxocarbonate
(IV): Production by Solvay process,
properties and uses, e.g.
Na2CO3 in the manufacture of glass.
(iii) Sodium chloride: its occurrence in
sea water and uses, the economic
importance of sea water and the
recovery of sodium chloride.
(b) Alkaline-earth metals, e.g. calcium;
calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide
and calcium trioxocarbonate (IV);
Properties and uses. Preparation of
calcium oxide from sea shells, the
chemical composition of cement
and the setting of mortar. Test for Ca2+

(xv) examine the relevance of nitrogen cycle
to the environment.
(xvi) identify allotropes of carbon;
(xvii) predict reagents for the laboratory
preparation of CO2;
(xviii) specify the properties of the gas and its
uses;
(xiv) determine the test for CO2;
(xx) determine the reagents for the
laboratory preparation of the gas;
(xxi) examine its effect on human;
(xxii) identify the different forms of coal:
(xxiiii) determine their uses;
(xxiv) specify the uses of coke and synthetic gas.

Candidates should be able to:
(i) determine the method for extraction suitable
for each metal;
(ii) relate the methods of extraction to the
properties for the metals;
(iii) compare the chemical reactivities of the metals;
(iv) specify the uses of the metals;
(v) determine specific test for metallic ions;
(vi) determine the process for the production
of the compounds of these metals;
(vii) compare the chemical reactivities of the
compounds.
(viii) specify the uses of these compounds;
(ix) determine the processes for the
preparation of the compounds of the
metal;

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(c) Aluminium
Purification of bauxite, electrolytic
extraction, properties and uses of
aluminium and its compounds. Test
for A13+
(d) Tin
Extraction form its ores.
Properties and uses.
(e) Metals of the first transition series.
Characteristic properties:
(i) electron configuration
(ii) oxidation states
(iii) complex ion formation
(iv) formationof coloured ions
(f) Iron
Extraction form sulphide and oxide
ores, properties and uses,
different forms of iron and their
properties and advantages of steel
over iron.
Test for Fe2+ and Fe3+
(g) Copper
Extraction from sulphide and oxide
ores, properties and uses of copper
salts, preparation and uses of
c o p p er ( I I ) tetraoxosulphate
(VI). Test for Cu2+
(h) Alloy
Steel, stainless steel, brass, bronze, type-
metal, duralumin and soft solder
(constituents and uses only).
17. Organic Compounds
An introduction to the tetravalency of
carbon, the general formula, IUPAC
nomenclature and the determination of
empirical formula of each class of the
organic compounds mentioned below.
(a) Aliphatic hydrocarbons
(i) Alkanes
Homologous series in relation
to physical properties,
substitution reaction and a few
examples and uses of halogenated
products. Isomerism: structural
only (examples on isomerism should
(x) describe the method of purification
of bauxite
(xi) relate the method of extraction to it properties;
(xii) specify the uses of tin;
(xiii) identify the general properties of the first
transition metals;
(xiv) deduce reasons for the specific properties
of the transition metals;
(xv) determine the IUPAC names of simple
transition metal complexes.
(xvi) determine the suitable method of
extraction for the metal;
(xvii) specify the properties and uses of the
metal;
(xviii) identify the appropriate method of
extraction for the metal and its compounds;
(xix) relate the properties of the metal and its
compound to their uses.
(xx) specify the constituents and uses of the various
alloys mentioned.
(xxi) compare the properties and uses of alloys
to pure metals.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) derive the name of organic compounds form their
general formulae;
(ii) relate the name of a compound to its structure;
(iii) relate the tetravalency of carbon to its ability
to form chains of compound (catenation);
(iv) classify compounds according to their
functional groups;
(v) derive empirical formula and molecular
formula, from given data;
(vi) relate structure/functional groups to specific
properties;
(vii) derive various isomeric form from a given
formula;

not go beyond six carbon atoms).
Petroleum: composition, fractional
distillation and major products;
cracking and reforming,
Petrochemicals – starting materials of
organic syntheses, quality of petrol
and meaning of octane number.
(ii) Alkenes
Isomerism: structural and geometric
isomerism, additional and
polymerization reactions, polythene
and synthetic rubber as examples of
products of polymerization and its use
in vulcanization.
(iii) Alkynes
Ethyne – production from action of
water on carbides, simple reactions and
properties of ethyne.
(b) Aromatic hydrocarbons e.g. benzene –
Structure, properties and uses.
(c) Alkanols
Primary, secondary, tertiary – production
of ethanol by fermentation and from
petroleum by-products. Local examples
of fermentation and distillation, e.g.
gin from palm wine and other local
sources and glycerol as a polyhydric
alkanol.
Reactions of OH group – oxidation as a
distinguishing test between primary,
secondary and tertiary alkanols.
(d) Alkanals and alkanones.
Chemical test to distinguish between
Alkanals and alkanones.
(e) Alkanoic acids.
Chemical reactions; neutralization and
esterification, ethanedioic (oxalic) acid
as an example of a dicarboxylic acid
and benzene carboxylic acid as an
example of an aromatic acid.
(viii) distinguish between the different types of
isomerism;
(ix) classify the various types of hydrocarbon;
(x) distinguish each class of hydrocarbon by their
properties;
(xi) specify the uses of various hydrocarbons;
(xii) identify crude oil as a complex mixture
of hydrocarbon;
(xiii) relate the fractions of hydrocarbon to their
properties and uses;
(xiv) relate transformation processes to quality
improvement of the fractions;
xv) distinguish between various
polymerization processes;
(xvi) distinguish between aliphatic and
aromatic hydrocarbons;
(xvii) relate the properties of benzene to its structure
(xviii) compare the various classes of alkanols;
(xix) determine the processes involved in ethanol
production;
(xx) examine the importance of ethanol as an
alternative energy provider;
(xxi) differentiate between alkanals and alkanones;
(xxii) compare the various classes of alkanoic
acid;
(xxiii) identify natural sources of alkanoates;

(f) Alkanoates
Formation from alkanoic acids and
Alkanols – fats and oils as alkanoates.
Saponification:
Production of soap and margarine from
alkanoates and distinction between
detergents and soaps.
(g) Amines (Alkanamines) Primary,
Secondary, tertiary
(h) Carbohydrates
Classification – mono-, di- and
polysaccharides, composition, chemical tests
for simple sugars and reaction with
concentrated tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid.
Hydrolysis of complex sugars e.g. cellulose
form cotton and starch from cassava, the
uses of sugar and starch in the production of
alcoholic beverages, pharmaceuticals and
textiles.
(i) Giant molecules e.g. proteins, enzymes,
natural rubbers and polymers.
(xxiv) specify the uses of alkanoates;
(xxv) distinguish between detergent and soap;
(xxvi) compare the various classes of alkanamine;
(xxvii) identify the natural sources of carbohydrates
and giant molecules;
(xxviii) compare the various classes of
carbohydrates;
(xxix) infer the product of hydrolysis of
carbohydrates;
(xxx) determine the uses of carbohydrates;
(xxxi) relate giant molecules to their uses.

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Books 2 and 3, Lagos: Longman
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& JME: Ibadan: University Press Plc
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Ibadan: Evans
Uche, I.O., Adenuga, I.J. and Iwuagwu, S.L. (2003). Countdown to WASSCE/SSCE, NECO, JME Chemistry,
Ibadan: Evans
Wisdomline Pass at Once JAMB.

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